med vocab ch 8.txt

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med vocab ch 8.txt
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  1. Blood
    Fluid circulating through the heart, arteries, capillaries & veins, transporting oxygen & nutritive materials to the tissues
  2. Formed elements
    Blood cells
  3. Plasma
    Liquid portion of blood that carries formed elements, clotting factors, minerals & proteins
  4. Serum
    Liquid portion of blood after removal of clotting factors & blood cells
  5. Bone marrow
    Soft tissue within bone, with multiple function including production of blood cells
  6. Erythropoietin (EPO)
    Hormone released by kidneys that stimulates red blood cell production in bone marrow
  7. Hematopoiesis
    Formation of blood cells & other formed elements
  8. Spleen
    Vascular lymphatic organ responsible for filtering blood, destroying old red blood cells, producing red blood cells before birth & storing blood
  9. Erythrocyte (red blood cell) (RBC)
    Blood cell that carries oxygen & carbon dioxide
  10. Hemoglobin
    • HGB
    • Hb
    • Hgb
    • Protein in red blood cells that binds to oxygen & gives RBCs characteristic color
  11. Iron
    • Fe
    • Essential trace element necessary for hemoglobin to transport oxygen on RBCs
  12. Macrocyte
    Large rbc
  13. Rh factor
    Protein substance present in RBCs of most people (85%) capable of inducing intense antigenic reactions
  14. Leukocyte
    • White blood cell
    • WBC
    • Largest blood cell, protects against pathogens, foreign substances & cell debris
  15. Granulocyte
    White blood cell with visible granules, 3 types named according to type of dye each is attracted to
  16. Neutrophil
    Granulocyte that fights against bacterial infections (stains neutral pink)
  17. Eosinophil
    Granulocyte that function in allergic reactions & against parasites (stains red)
  18. Basophil
    Granulocyte that releases histamine in allergic reactions & inflammatory responses (stains dark blue)
  19. Agranulocyte
    WBC without clearly visible granules
  20. Lymphocyte
    Type of agranulocyte that circulates in lymphatic system & is active in immunity
  21. B Lymphocyte
    • B cell
    • WBC that when in contact with a foreign antigen, produces antibodies to inactivate the antigen
  22. T Lymphocyte
    • T cell
    • WBC that matures in thymus & specializes in creating an immune response
  23. Monocyte
    Largest of WBCs
  24. Macrophage
    Enlarged & matured monocytes active in phagocytosis
  25. Thrombocyte
    • Platelet
    • PLT
    • Cell fragments in blood that stick together to form a clot
  26. Clotting factors
    Any of various plasma components involved in clotting process
  27. Coagulation
    Clotting, changing from a liquid to solid state
  28. Fibrin
    Elastic fiber protein needed in clotting & produced by fibrinogen
  29. Fibrinogen
    Plasma protein that is converted into solid threads called fibrin
  30. Antigen
    Agent or substance that provokes an immune response
  31. Antibody
    • Ab
    • Soldier-like cell that protects the body & inactivates antigens, provides immunity against specific organisms
  32. Histamine
    Substance released by damaged cells that increases blood flow to area, causing inflammatory process involving heat, redness, swelling & pain
  33. Immunity
    Protection against disease
  34. Pathogen
    Any virus, microorganism, or other substance that causes disease
  35. Phagocytosis
    Cellular process of eating & destroying substances, usually by the neutrophils & macrophages
  36. Chrom/o
    • Chromat/o
    • Color
  37. Cyt/o
    Cell
  38. Erythr/o
    Red
  39. Granul/o
    Granules
  40. Hem/o
    • Hemat/o
    • Blood
  41. Immune/o
    Immune, safe
  42. Leuk/o
    White
  43. Lymph/o
    Lymph
  44. Neutr/o
    Neutral
  45. Nucle/o
    Nucleus
  46. Path/o
    Disease
  47. Phag/o
    Eat, swallow
  48. Phleb/o
    Vein
  49. Plas/o
    Formation, growth
  50. Thromb/o
    Blood clot
  51. Auto-
    Self, same
  52. Basi-
    • Baso-
    • Base
  53. Macro-
    Large, long
  54. Micro-
    Small
  55. Mono-
    One
  56. Pro-
    Before, promoting
  57. Poly-
    Many, much
  58. -cyte
    Cell
  59. -emia
    Blood (condition of)
  60. -sis
    Condition, process
  61. -gen
    Origin, production
  62. -lysis
    Destruction, breakdown, separation
  63. -osis
    Abnormal condition
  64. -penia
    Deficiency
  65. -philia
    Attraction for
  66. -poiesis
    Production, formation
  67. -rrhage
    Flowing forth
  68. -y
    Condition of
  69. Autoimmunity
    • Pertaining to one's immune system attacking its own tissues or cells
    • Note: Pt = Pertaining to
  70. Cytopathic
    Pt disease or disorder of cell or cellular component
  71. Hematopoietic
    Pt formation of blood cells
  72. Hemolytic
    Pt rupture or destruction of RBCs
  73. Hemorrhagic
    Pt profuse or excessive bleeding
  74. Hemostasis
    Stoppage or arrest of bleeding
  75. Hypersensitive
    Condition of excessive response or exaggerated sensitivity to stimulus
  76. Inflammatory
    Pertaining to process of heat, redness, swelling & pain, in response to tissue injury
  77. Predisposition
    Condition of being susceptible to disease
  78. Proliferative
    Growing & increasing in number of similar cells
  79. Rejection
    Immunologic response of incompatibility to transplanted organ or tissue
  80. Systemic
    Pertaining to body as a whole
  81. Virulent
    Denotes an extremely toxic pathogen
  82. Anemia
    Condition in which number of RBCs, hemoglobin or volume of packed cells is lower than normal
  83. Aplastic anemia
    Disorder in which bone marrow does not produce enough RBCs
  84. Iron deficiency anemia
    Disorder where hemoglobin is unable to transport oxygen due to lack of iron
  85. Pernicious anemia
    Disorder where number of RBCs decline with simultaneous enlargement of individual cells due to inability to absorb vitamin B-12 (usually in older adults)
  86. Hemorrhagic anemia
    • blood loss anemia
    • Disorder where lack of RBCs due to profuse blood loss
  87. Thalassemia
    Disorder where genetic defect resulting in low hemoglobin production
  88. Sickle cell anemia
    Disorder where genetic defect resulting in abnormal hemoglobin causing sickle-shaped RBCs that have a hard time moving through small capillary vessels
  89. Autoimmune disease
    Condition in which immune system attacks normal body tissues
  90. Clotting disorder
    Condition of inability of blood to coagulate
  91. Hemophilia
    Bleeding disorder due to deficiency of clotting factor
  92. Thrombocytopenia
    Disorder involving low levels of platelets in blood
  93. Idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura
    • ITP
    • Disorder marked by platelet destruction by macrophages resulting in bruising & bleeding from mucous membranes
  94. von Willebrand disease
    • vWD
    • Bleeding disorder characterized by tendency to bleed primarily form mucous membranes due to deficiency of clotting factor
  95. Hemochromatosis
    Excessive absorption & storage of dietary iron in body tissues causing dysfunction
  96. Mononucleosis
    Increase of mononuclear leukocytes with symptoms of fever, enlarged cervical lymph nodes & fatigue
  97. Pancytopenia
    Deficiency in all types of blood cells
  98. Polycythemia
    Increase of RBCs
  99. Rheumatoid arthritis
    • RA
    • Autoimmune disease causing progressive destructive changes & inflammation in multiple joints, especially in hands & feet
  100. Septicemia
    Spread of microorganisms or toxins through circulating blood
  101. Siogren syndrome
    Chronic autoimmune disease in which a person's WBCs attack their moisture-producing glands
  102. Systemic lupus erythematosus
    • SLE
    • Inflammatory, autoimmune, connective tissue disease that can affect all organ systems
  103. Thrombosis
    Abnormal presence of clotting within a blood vessel
  104. Albumin
    Measurement of protein level, used to diagnose liver or kidney problems, inflammation, malnutrition or dehydration
  105. Bilirubin
    Screen for liver disorders or anemia
  106. Blood smear
    Evaluation of appearance & number of blood cells & different types of WBCs
  107. Complete blood count
    • hemogram
    • CBC
    • Automated count of all blood cells
  108. Erythrocyte sedimentation rate
    • ESR
    • Time measurement of RBCs settling in test tube over 1hr, used to diagnose inflammation & anemia
  109. Hematocrit
    • HCT
    • Hct
    • Volume of blood occupied by RBCs, used to diagnose various disorders including anemia
  110. Hemoglobin test
    Test for RBC protein responsible for binding oxygen, used to diagnose various disorders including anemia
  111. Platelet count
    • PLT
    • Number of platelets present, used to diagnose bleeding disorders or bone marrow disease
  112. Red blood cell count
    Number of erythrocytes present, used to diagnose various disorders including anemia
  113. White blood cell count
    Number of leukocytes present, used to diagnose various disorder, including infection & diseases, and for monitoring treatment
  114. Cross-matching
    Blood typing test for compatibility between donor & recipient blood
  115. Culture & sensitivity
    • C & S
    • Blood typing test for compatibility between donor & recipient blood
  116. Prothrombin time
    • PT
    • Measurement of time for blood to clot
  117. WBC differential count
    • differential count
    • Evaluation of total percentage of leukocytes
  118. Antinuclear antibody test
    • ANA test
    • Assessment for autoimmune disorders such as systemic lupus erythematosus, rheumatoid arthritis & others
  119. Epstein-Barr virus antibody test
    • EBV antibody test
    • Diagnostic test for mononucleosis & evaluation of Epstein-Barr virus
  120. Mononucleosis spot test
    Assessment for mononucleosis
  121. Rheumatoid factor test
    Test for rheumatoid arthritis & Sjogren syndrome
  122. Apheresis
    Removal & replacement of patient's own blood or donor blood after specific components have been removed
  123. Blood transfusion
    • BT
    • Transfer of blood between compatible donor & recipient
  124. Autologous blood
    Blood donated for future use by same patient, usually pre-surgical
  125. Homologous blood
    Blood donated from same species for use by compatible recipient
  126. Blood component therapy
    Transfusion of specific blood components such as packed RBCs, plasma or platelets
  127. Bone marrow aspiration
    • BMA
    • Removal of small amount of fluid & cells from inside bone with needle & syringe
  128. Immunization
    • Vaccination
    • Administration of weakened or killed pathogen or protein of pathogen, to cause immune system to create antibodies for future protection
  129. Immunosuppression
    Use of chemotherapy or immunosuppressant drugs to interfere with immune responses, usually prescribed for autoimmune disorders
  130. Plebotomy
    • Venipuncture
    • Venotomy
    • Incision into vein to inject a solution or withdraw blood
  131. Plasmapheresis
    Removal & replacement of patient's own blood after plasma has been removed & replaced with plasma substitute
  132. Splenectomy
    Surgical removal of spleen
  133. Antibiotic
    Drug that acts against susceptible microorganisms
  134. Anticoagulant
    Drug to prolong blood clotting time
  135. Antihistamine
    Drug to stop effects of histamine
  136. Hemostatic agent
    • Procoagulant
    • Drug that stops flow of blood within vessels
  137. Immune serum
    Serum prepared form individual with specific disease antibodies
  138. Immunosuppressant
    Drug used to suppress or reduce immune responses in organ transplant recipients or those with severe autoimmune diseases
  139. Thrombolytic agent
    Drug that dissolves a blood clot
  140. Vaccine
    Preparation composed of weakened or killed pathogen
  141. Allergology
    Medical specialty concerned with diagnosis & treatment of allergy & sensitivity
  142. Allergist
    Physician who specializes in allergology
  143. Hematology
    Medical specialty concerned with diagnosis & treatment of disorders of blood & blood-forming organs
  144. Hematologist
    Physician who specializes in hematology
  145. Immunology
    Medical specialty concerned with immunity, allergy & induced sensitivity
  146. Immunologist
    One who practices immunology
  147. Rheumatology
    Medical specialty concerned with diagnosis & treatment of rheumatic conditions & autoimmune diseases
  148. Rheumatologist
    Physician who specializes in rheumatology
  149. Ab
    Antibody
  150. Ag
    Antigen
  151. ANA
    Antinuclear antibody test
  152. BMA
    Bone marrow aspiration
  153. BMT
    Bone marrow transplant
  154. BT
    Blood transfusion
  155. CBC
    Complete blood count
  156. C&S
    Culture and sensitivy
  157. EBV
    Epstein-Barr virus
  158. EPO
    Erythropoietin
  159. ESR
    Erythrocyte sedimentation rate
  160. Fe
    Iron
  161. HCT
    • Hct
    • ht
    • Hematocrit
  162. HGB
    • Hb
    • Hgb
    • Hemoglobin
  163. ITP
    Idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura
  164. PLT
    Platelet or platelet count
  165. PT
    Prothrombin time
  166. RA
    Rheumatoid arthritis
  167. RBC
    Red blood cell/count
  168. SLE
    Systemic lupus erythematosus
  169. vWD
    von Willebrand disease
  170. WBC
    White blood cell/count

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