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What does A.B.A. stand for?
Applied Behavior Analysis
A description of a Response in terms of the Antecedent (A), Behavior (B), and Consequence (C) of the response.
Also called the Three-Term Contingency
is the stimulus that immediately precedes the behavior.
is a description of the response in its Topography
is the immediate outcome of the behavoir.
Refers to what an individual is capable of doing
refers to what an individual actually does on a given occasion.
Acronym for the Assessment of Basic Language Learning Skills, a language assesment tool in common useage within Applied Behavior Analytic programs.
refers to the ethical principle that a treatment procedure be demonstrated to be effective in order to be used. Such a demonstration requires an objective collection of DATA both before and after the implementation of the procedure, and it's effect on the behavior in question.
The time during which an individual is learning a new behavior.
Data collected on the rate (speed) and accuracy of the skill being acquired informs the interventionist working with an individual as to whether the teaching procedures being used need to be adjusted.
Active Student Responding (Learning)
this is the requirement that students need to learn skills through interacting with their environment (e.g., teachers, instructional materials, etc.) as opposed to reying to learn by simply sitting back and observing or listening.
The child must demonstrate the skill to infer that learning has taken place
Activities of Daily Living (ADL)
refers to a myriad of behaviors involved in taking care of one's self (e.g. toilet usage, washing, dressing, eating, etc.)
These behaviors are also referred to as Self-Help Skills
The individual earns access to a favored (more probable) activity by engaging in less favored (less probable) activities.
A procedure wherein individuals are taught to follow a series of written or pictorial cues, engaging in the Behavior Chain represented.
Multiple steps that make up a given behavior or activity.
A temperature and humidity controlled crib for human infants developed by B.F. Skinner.
Alternating Treatments Design
refers to an Experimental Design wherein during any given session, one of a specified number of experimental conditions will be in place.
Experiment (Experimental Design)
A type of research activity that involves changing only one component of an individual's (or group of individuals) environment (called an Independent Variable) to see its effect on some specified behavior (called a Dependent Variable).
This allows researchers and clinicians to identify the functional (causal) relationsip between variables. If more than one component of an individual's environment is chaned at the same time, it is impossible to determine a causal relationship (see Confound and Control)
A term referring to an attempt to recreate the real-life situation within the laboratory.
Some functional analysis are conducted, for example, by "staging" typical situations within the laboratory.
refers to a reinforcing stimulus
Applied Behavior Analysis (A.B.A.)
the application of the science of learning to socially significant human behavior.
this is a less-then-perfect attempt at a Target Behavior.
Within the Shaping paradigm, an approximation may either lead to reinforcement or be extinguished m depending on the current step.
A very powerful process used to create new behavior by differentially reinforcing successive approximations to a desired behavior (the target response)
To successfully shape behavior, one must:
A. Begin by reinforcing a crude approximation to the target response.
B. After a time, put that crude approximation on Extinction (i.e., do not reinforce the crude approximation again).
C. An Extinction Burst will set in, which will lead to a greater frequency and magnitude fo behavior, as well as variability in the behavior.
D. As a result of the variability seen wiht the extinction burst, a closer approximation to the target behavior may be performed.
E. Reinforce this closer approximation
F. Repeat steps A-E until the target response is emitteed perfectly.
teaching an individual that two or more seemingly unrelated stimuli "belong together." in such cases there is no physical similarity among the items to indicate "belongingness."
Arbitrary matching skills are often taught in word-object assosiations.