Pharmacology

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Author:
hannahshort
ID:
238753
Filename:
Pharmacology
Updated:
2013-10-04 18:57:28
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chapter 12
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Description:
antiparasitics
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  1. ideal characteristics for antiparasitic
    • selective toxicity (toxic to worm not dog)
    • effective, easy to apply
    • economical
    • environmentally safe
    • does not induce resistance
  2. anthelmintic
    compound that kills types of internal parasites such as helminths
  3. vermicide
    • kills worm
    • passed whole or absorbed
  4. vermifuge
    • paralyses worm
    • passage of live worm in stool
  5. piperazines
    • oldest of vermicides
    • once a month
    • OTC
    • ascarids only
  6. benzimidazoles (8)
    • Thiabendazole
    • Fenbendazole (Panacur)
    • Oxibendazole
    • Albendazole
    • Oxfendazole
    • Parbendazole
    • Cambendazole
    • Mebendazole (Telmin)
  7. group of insecticides that works by blocking acetylcholinesterase. there are many safer drugs now.
    organophosphates
  8. inhibits neurotransmitters, glutamate and gamma amino butyric acid (GABA) animal could become paralyzed and die of hypoxia
    Ivermectin
  9. mimics action of neurotransmitter acetylcholine causing initial stimulation and then paralysis *safest*
    pyrantel
  10. marked as Strongid T&C, Nemex, Banminth, Imathal 
    Pyrantel 
  11. for tapeworms
    praziquantel (Droncit)
  12. non-proprietary name for Droncit
    praziquantel
  13. combined with praziquantel to make Drontal
    febantel

    effective against rounds, hooks, tapes
  14. anticestodals
    • praziquantel (Droncit)
    • espirantel (Cestex)
  15. antinematodals
    • piperazines
    • benzimidazoles
    • organophosphates
    • ivermectin
    • pyrantel
    • febantel
  16. effective against all tapes including Echinococcus species
    • praziquantel (Droncit)
    • vermicide- kills adult in bowel (not ovicidal, eggs may pass in feces for a period of time)
    • tab, injectable
  17. Droncit
    praziquantel
  18. Cestex
    epsiprantel
  19. effective against taenia&dipylidium but not echinococcus
    • epsiprantel (Cestex)
    • vermicide-kills adult in bowel (not ovicidal)
    • oral only
  20. treatment of adult HW
    Immiticide (melarsomine dihydrochloride)

    • 2 injections 24 hr intervals
    • given IM in lumbar muscles
    • effective against immature&mature S5
    • arsenic compound that has to be decomposed by kidney and liver
  21. treatment of microfilaria
    • Ivermectin
    • Selamectin
  22. breed contraindicated for use of Ivermectin
    collie
  23. HW prevention
    • Ivermectin- Heartgard
    • Selamectin- Revolution
    • Milbemycin oxime- Interceptor, Sentinel
    • Moxidectin- ProHeart6
    • Diethylcarbamazine citrate-Filaribits
  24. antiprotozoals (coccidia, giardia, trichomonas)
    • Sulfadimethoxine (albon, bactrovet)
    • Metronidazole (Flagyl)
    • Fenbendazole (Panacur)
    • Albendazole
    • Mebendazole
    • Amprolium
  25. cholinesterase inhibitors--bind to acetylcholinesterase
    organophosphates, carbamates
  26. two classes of acetylcholine receptors
    • muscarinic
    • nicotinic

    (toxic signs are based on which receptor is stimulated)
  27. nicotinic receptors found in
    • sympathetic system (pre-ganglionic synapse)
    • parasympathetic system (post-ganglionic)
    • junction btwn nerves&muscles in the somatic nervous system
  28. muscarinic receptors found in
    parasympathetic system at neuro-effector junction
  29. organophosphate toxicity signs related to muscarinic receptors
    SLUDDE

    • salivation
    • lacrimation
    • urination
    • defecation
    • dyspnea
    • emesis

    miosis (constricted pupils)
  30. miosis
    constricted pupils
  31. mydriasis
    dilated pupils
  32. toxicity signs with nicotinic receptors
    • muscle tremors
    • ataxia
    • loss of muscle control
  33. treatment for organo/carbomate toxicity
    • 1. atropine or glycopyrolate- block muscarinic receptors so acetylcholinesterase is released
    • 2. pralidoxime (2-PAM)- separates acetylcholinesterase from organophosphate, freeing the enzyme to work&stop acetylcholine
  34. first of natural insecticides derived from chrystanthemum
    pyrethrins
  35. synthetic pyrethrins
    pyrethroids

    marketed as Adam's spray
  36. treat demodectic mange
    amitraz (Mitaban)
  37. imidacloprid
    Advantage

    • FLEAS
    • topical
    • cannot penetrate dermis-water can remove
    • Bayer
  38. fipronil
    Frontline

    • FLEAS
    • topical
    • penetrate dermis-water resistant
  39. Frontline Plus
    fipronil and methoprene (IGR)
  40. selamectin
    Revolution

    • FLEAS&HW plus ear mites
    • topical
  41. flea/tick/mosquito topical for cats
    ectopamine
  42. milbemycin in oral form
    • interceptor (milbemycin oxime)
    • sentinel (milbemycin oxime&lufenuron)
  43. insect growth regulators
    • methoprene (Precor) in products like Frontline Plus
    • female fleas absorb the drug which is incorporated into the flea eggs. impregnated eggs may hatch but will not mature


    lufenuron (Program) interferes with development of chitin, unable to hatch out of egg

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