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phospholipid bilayer- semipermeable
describe the cell membrane structure
eg: O2 , CO2 , & fats
what easily permeates a cell membrane?
phosphorous group (polar head) - Hydrophillic part
2 fatty acids (nonpolar tail) - Hydrophobic part
List the parts in a phospholipid
water, glucose, amino acids
What cannot easily pass through the cell membrane?
from a greater concentration to a lesser concentration
What is diffusion?
the diffusion of water
What is osmosis?
from HYPOTONIC to Hypertonic regions
what direction does water move?
isotonic- cell is stable, concentration of water on inside is same as outside
hypertonic- water pours out of the cell, causing it to shrink
hypotonic- water pours in to cell, causing it to swell
- CELL ENVIRONMENTS
less solute, more water
What is a hypotonic solution?
facilitated diffusion and active transport
name two types of carrier mediated transport
no energy required, this is how glucose permeates cell membrane
energy required, this is how amino acids, sodium, potassium, etc permeates cell membrane
is the process of engulfing a solid particle by a completely wrapping around it. It's like a sheet that envelopes- no mouth. THis is how larger objects permeate cell
made of double membrane with pores, contains chromatin (the combination of DNA and proteins that make up the contents of the nucleus of a cell. The primary functions of chromatin are 1) to package DNA into a smaller volume to fit in the cell, 2) to strengthen the DNA to allow mitosis, 3) to prevent DNA damage, and 4) to control gene expression and DNA replication)
the process by which a cell, which has previously replicated each of its chromosomes, separates the chromosomes in its cell nucleus into two identical sets of chromosomes, each set in its own new nucleus
C G A T
DNA is made of
C G A U
RNA is made of
A - T
C - G
How do nucleotides pair?
its a message that tells you how to make a protein
What does DNA do?
DNA segment for one protein (about 20,000 protein coding genes in human)
What is a gene?
DNA sequence gets converted to RNA
RNA copy of the gene (DNA segment, the message)
What is transcription?
RNA message into amino acids
Amino acids joined together (according to the message that was transcribed)
What is translation?
DNA gets copied via RNA, RNA gets translated into specific combinations of amino acids- makes the protein. Proteins make our characteristics
protein making process and expression
where the proteins are assembled from amino acids. two types exist, free and bound
What are ribosomes?
Forms an interconnected network of membrane vesicles (network inside the cell). 2 types: rough and smooth.
Rough: is studded with ribosomes aka bound (sites of protein synthesis for stuff outside the cell)
Smooth: smooth network without the ribosomes. concerned with lipid metabolism, carbohydrate metabolism, and detoxification
What is the endoplasmic reticulum?
secretion device, its like the shipping room
package of oxidative enzymes
where ATP is produced
we inheirit all only from mom (inside ova)
packages of digestive enzymes
WBC digestion after phagocytosis
Apoptosis- programmed cell death
Necrosis- traumatic cell death
determines shape of the cell
Cilia- sweeping motion
tight junctions- welded
gap junctions- tubes (electrical charges past thru)
chemical process inside the cell. Two types: anabolic---> put together
catabolic---> take apart
most common way: breakdown of food/glucose aka the oxidation of glucose
How is ATP formed?
glycolysis ---> Kreb's cycle---> ATP
Oxidation of glucose
Sugar (glucose) eventually gets broken into?
water! joins up with the oxygen we breath
The excess H (hydrogen) from krebs and cytochromes (stuff in the mitochondria) will eventually make....
no oxygen is available to aid in breakdown of glucose. glycolysis makes the pyruvic acid, which turns into lactic acid b/c there is no oxygen (instead of entering kreb's cycle)
membrane-bound (i.e. inner mitochondrial membrane) heme-proteins they are primarily responsible for the generation of ATP (via electron transport)
what are cytochromes?
What is the best PLANT source of amino acid Lysine?