Nervous System

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Nervous System
2013-10-04 20:43:14
Vocab Nervous Biology

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  1. afferent nerve
    Carries messages toward the brain and spinal cord.
  2. axon
    Microscopic fiber that carries the nervous impulse along a nerve cell.
  3. blood-brain barrier (BBB)
    Protective separation between blood and brain cells. Difficult for substances to penetrate capillary walls.
  4. brainstem
    Posterior portion of brain that connects cerebrum to spinal cord.
  5. cell body
    Part of a nerve cell that contains the nucleus.
  6. central nervous system (CNS)
    The brain and spinal cord.
  7. cerebellum
    Posterior part of the brain that coordinates muscle movements and maintains balance.
  8. cerebral cortex
    Outer region of the cerebrum, containing sheets of nerve cells; gray matter of the brain.
  9. cerebrospinal fluid
    circulates throughout the brain and spinal cord.
  10. cerebrum
    Largest part of the brain; responsible for voluntary muscular activity, vision, speech, taste, hearing, thought, and memory.
  11. cranial nerves
    Twelve pairs of nerves that carry messages to and from the brain with regard to the head and neck.
  12. dendrite
    Microscopic branching fiber of a nerve cell that is the first part to receive nervous impulse.
  13. efferent nerve
    Carries messages away from brain and spinal cord.
  14. hypothalamus
    Portion of the brain beneath the thalamus; control sleep, appetite, body temperature, and secretions from the pituitary gland.
  15. medulla oblongata
    Part of brain just above the spinal cord; controls breathing, heartbeat, and size of blood vessels.
  16. meninges
    Three protective membranes surround the brain and spinal cord.
  17. motor nerve
    Carries messages away from the brain and spinal cord to muscles and organs.
  18. nerve
    Macroscopic cord-like collection of fibers that carry electrical impulses.
  19. neuron
    Nerve cell that carries impulses throughout the body.
  20. neurotransmitter
    Chemical messenger release at the end of a nerve cell. Stimulates or inhibits another cell, can be nerve cell, muscle cell, or gland cell.
  21. peripheral nervous system
    Nerves outside the brain and spinal cord: cranial, spinal and autonomic nerves.
  22. pons
    Part of the brain anterior to the cerebellum and between the medulla and the rest of the midbrain. A bridge connecting various parts of the brain.
  23. sciatic nerve
    nerve extending from the base of the spine down the thigh, lower leg and the foot. Sciatica is pain or inflammation along the course of the nerve.
  24. sensory nerve
    carries messages toward the brain and spinal cord from a receptor.
  25. spinal nerve
    31 pairs nerves arising from the spinal cord.
  26. synapse
    space through which a nervous impulse travels between nerve cells or between nerve and muscle or glandular cells.
  27. thalamus
    Main relay center of the brain. It conducts impulse between the spinal cord and cerebrum; incoming sensory messages are relayed through the thalamus to appropriate centres in the cerebrum.
  28. vagus nerve
    10th cranial nerve; its branches reach to the larynx, trachea, bronchi, pons, and aorta, oesophagus and stomach.
  29. ventricles of the brain
    canals of the brain that contain CSF.