Vitamins and Minerals

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Author:
kateodaniel
ID:
238773
Filename:
Vitamins and Minerals
Updated:
2013-10-06 20:48:31
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Nutrition
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Core topic 1
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  1. What are the 4 fat soluble vitamins?
    Vitamin A, D, E, K
  2. What are the water soluble vitamins?
    B1, B2, B3, B12, C, Folate
  3. What are the actual names of the vitamins?
    • B1 - Thiamin
    • B2 - Riboflavin
    • B3 - Niacin
    • B12 - cobalamin
    • C - Ascorbic acid
    • A - Retinol
    • D - chloecalciferol 
    • E - tocopherols
  4. Vitamin B1 
    functions, food sources (2), deficiency and excess
    • Functions - metabolism of carbohydrates
    • - energy release from carbs, proteins and fats
    • food sources - wholegrain products
    • yeast and yeast products
    • deficiencys - beriberi, cramping of calf muscles, 
    • excess - hypervitaminosis
  5. Vitamin B2
    functions, food sources (2), deficiency and excess?
    • Functions - metabolism of protein, carbs and fats
    • - healthy skin, maintains eye health
    • Food sources - milk and milk products, wholegrain cereals
    • Deficiencys - inflammation of tongue, itching and burning of eyes
  6. Vitamin B3 (3 d's)
    functions, food sources (3), deficiency and excess
    • functions - metabolism of carbs, protein and lipids
    • - healthy skin and maintenance of the healthy nervous/digestive system
    • food sources - red meat, poultry and seafood
    • deficiencies - loss of appetite and headaches, PELLAGRA (Dementia, diarrhoea and dermatitis) 
    • excess - increased blood pressure
  7. Vitamin B12
    functions, food sources (2), deficiency and excess
    • functions - formation of red blood cells in bone marrow, important for nerve tissue
    • food sources - meat, milk and milk products (some fortified vitamin b12 cereals as vegans cant gain enough vitamin b12 as it is mainly animal products) 
    • deficiencies - anaemia, changes in nervous system, retarded development in young children
  8. Folate
    functions, food sources (3), deficiency and excess
    • functions - metabolism of protein, produce red blood cells in association with vitamin B12
    • food sources - wholegrain cereals, avocados  green leafy vegetables
    • deficiencies - anaemia, SPINABIFIDA
    • excess - vomiting and diarrhoea
  9. Vitamin C 
    functions (3), food sources (3), deficiency and excess
    • functions - resist infection and promote wound healing, maintain healthy skin, gums, teeth, blood vessels and bones. promote absorption of iron and calcium 
    • food sources - citrus fruits, potatoes, tomatoes
    • deficiencies -  poor resistance of infections, fatigue and depression. Wounds fractures healing at slower rate. Painful bleeding gums and lost teeth
    • excess - gastric problem - nausea, stomach camps and diarrhoea
  10. Vitamin A 
    functions, food sources (2), deficiency and excess
    • functions - protects eye tissue from infection, protects mucous membranes, assist normal growth of bones and teeth and assists night vision. 
    • food sources - orange and yellow fruit and vegetables, some dark green vegetables (spinach and Brussels sprouts) 
    • deficiencies - cornea of eye becoming dry and irritated, night blindness, loss of tooth enamel.
    • excess - stored in the liver and may become toxic leading to loss of appetite and nausea.
    • or skin becoming yellow
  11. Vitamin D 
    functions, food sources (3), deficiency and excess
    • Functions - facilitates the absorption of calcium and phosphorus into the bone
    • maintains healthy skin and teeth
    • food sources -  fish liver oils, oily fish, SUNLIGHT 
    • deficiencies - poor tooth development and decay, rickets in children 
    • excess - loss of appetite, vomiting and diarrhoea, kidney failure.
  12. Vitamin E
    functions (car), food sources (2), deficiency and excess
    • functions - protects red blood cells, assists vitamin C in preventing the formation of carcinogenic substances in the digestive system 
    • food sources - wholegrain cereals, green vegetables
    • deficiencies - anaemia  reduced protection against carcinogenic substances in the digestive system
    • excess - muscle weakness, vitamin C deficiency
  13. Vitamin K
    functions, food sources (2), deficiency and excess
    • Functions - enable to blood clot
    • maintains formal liver function
    • food sources - green leafy vegetables, liver
    • deficiencies - increased blood clotting time during haemorrhage
  14. CALCIUM
    functions, food sources (2), deficiency and excess
    functions - formation of strong bones and teeth (with phosphorus, vitamin D and C)- required for normal blood clotting. food sources - milk and milk products, almonds, dark green vegetablesdeficiencies - bone loss which can lead t osteoporosis
  15. IRON
    functions, food sources (2), deficiency and excess
    • functions - forms part of the haemoglobin, which carries o2 around the body.- forms part of the myoglobin in muscles, which makes the o2 avaliable for muscle contraction. 
    • deficiencies  decreased production of red blood cells leading to anaemia, chronic tiredness, decreased capability to exercise. food sources - Haem iron - readily absorbed by the body eg. meat, fish
    • Non haem iron - the body does not readily absorb eg. plant foods(when iron is consumed with vitamin C the absorption rate increases.
    •  excess - constipation
  16. SODIUM
    functions, food sources (1), deficiency and excess
    • functions - controls fluids that enter and leave the body, helps control muscle contraction and relaxation
    • food sources - salt
    • deficiencies - high levels of physical activity can lead to a deficiency, muscle cramp and vomiting (rarely in Australia)
    • Excess - high blood pressure (hypertension), fluid retention (oedema) and kidney and heart failure
  17. POTASSIUM
    functions, food sources (2), deficiency and excess
    • functions - works with sodium to maintain a balance of fluid flow that enters and leaves the body.
    • food sources - bananas, bacon
    • deficiencies - weakness, muscle cramps
  18. IODINE
    functions, food sources (2), deficiency and excess
    • function - component of two thyroid hormones that regulate growth, development and metabolic rate.
    •  food sources - iodised salt, seafood
    •  deficiencies - enlargement of thyroid gland, weight gain
    • excess - enlargement of thyroid gland
  19. ZINC
    functions, food sources (2), deficiency and excess
    • functions - metabolises carbs and protein, assists in the immune function and growth and development
    • food sources - protein rich sources - beef, liver, legumes
    • deficiencies - growth retardation and sexual delay maturity.
    •  excess - vomiting, diarrohea and headaches

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