Neuromuscular Review

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Author:
dmshaw9
ID:
238834
Filename:
Neuromuscular Review
Updated:
2014-02-13 10:55:32
Tags:
Neuromuscular Review
Folders:
NM1
Description:
NM1
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  1. Corticospinal Tract
    • Voluntary, isolated, fine coordinated movement
    • Lateral = crosses in the medulla
    • Anterior = descends ipsilaterally

    Damage to CST: loss of voluntary control, decreased descending inhibition, abnormal synergistic movement
  2. Dorsal column medial lemniscal
    • Discriminative light touch, vibration, conscious proprioception, jt/muscle sensation
    • 2 point discrimination and vibration = cortically integrated
  3. Spinothalamic
    • Cross and ascend
    • Ant = crude touch, light touch, and pressure
    • Post = pain and temp
  4. Spinocerebellar
    • Unconscious proprioception
    • Info 》cerebellum 》coordinated movements and posture
    • Input: muscle spindles, GTO, pressure receptors
    • Stays unilateral
  5. Frontal lobe
    Executive functions, cognition, frontal eye fields, motor cortex
  6. Parietal lobe
    Somatosensory cortex, sensory integration, and perception (visual depth/figure ground)
  7. Temporal lobe
    Hearing
  8. Occipital lobe
    Vision
  9. Rubrospinal tract
    • Red nucleus
    • Strong flexor influence, upper extremity (flexor synergies)
  10. Tectospinal tract
    • Colliculi
    • Head/neck/eye control/coordination
  11. Vestibospinal tract
    • Vestibular nucleus
    • Postural control, extensor influence
  12. Pontine reticulospinal
    • Pons retic formation
    • Postural control, extensor influence
  13. Medulloreticulospinal
    • Medulla retic formation
    • Postural control, extensor influence to limbs bilateral tracts
  14. Cerebellum
    • Motor coordination, motor learning, state estimation, cognition
    • Purkinje cells: output, inhibitory (only ouput!)
    • Granul cells: weakly excitatory
    • Input: from periphery and all levels of CNS (more afferents than efferents)
    • Ouput: first from cortex (via purkinje) then to deep nuclei
  15. Basal ganglia
    • Basal ganglia inhibitory 》thalamus
    • (Cerebellum excitatory 》thalamus)

    • Direct pathway: putamen 》GPi 》thalamus
    • Positive feedback (facilitates movement)
    • Huntingtons (hyperkinesis)

    • Indirect pathway: putamen 》GPe 》subthalamic nucleus 》GPi 》thalamus
    • Negative feedback (inhibits movement)
    • Parkinson's (hypokinesis)
  16. Hypokinetic
    • Brady/hypo/akinesia
    • Rigidity
    • Postural instability
    • Freezing
    • Dystonia
  17. Hyperkinetic
    • Athetosis
    • Chorea
    • (Hemi)ballismus
    • Tremor

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