chapter 4 human growth and development

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  1. schemes
    • Mental categories of related events, objects, and knowledge
    • Children adapt by refining their schemes and adding new ones
    • Schemes change from physical to functional, conceptual, and abstract as the child develops
  2. Assimilation:
    • fitting new experiences into existing schemes
    • Required to benefit from experience
  3. Accommodation:
    • modifying schemes as a result of new experiences
    • Allows for dealing with completely new data or experiences
  4. Equilibrium
    balance between assimilation and accommodation
  5. Disequilibrium
    experience of conflict between new information and existing concepts
  6. Equilibration
    • inadequate schemes are reorganized or replaced with more advanced and mature schemes
    • Occurs three times during development, resulting in four qualitatively different stages of cognitive development
  7. Concrete operational period (7-11 years)
    Middle and late elementary school
  8. Formal operational period (11 years & up)
    Adolescence and adulthood
  9. Sensorimotor period
    • (0-2 years)
    • Deliberate, means-ends behavior
    • 8 months
    • Object permanence: knowing an object still exists even if not in view
    • Not fully understood until 18 months
    • Using symbols
    • Anticipate consequences of actions, instead of needing to experience them
    • 18 to 24 months
  10. object permanence
    knowing an object still exists even if not in view
  11. Preoperational Thinking
    • (2-7years) preschool years
    • Egocentrism
    • Animism
    • Centration
    • Appearance is reality
  12. appearance is reality
    things really are a they appear (when someone puts on monkey mask, they ARE a monkey)
  13. conservation
    knowing that volumn, mass, number, length, area, or liquid quantity are the same despite superficial appearance changes
  14. centration
    • concentrating on only one facet of a problem to the neglect of other facets
    • interferes with conservation
  15. egocentrism
    difficulty seeing world from others' perspectives
  16. animism
    crediting inanimate objects with life and lifelike properties
  17. Criticisms of Piaget’ s Theory
    • Underestimates infants’ and young children’s cognitive ability
    • Overestimates adolescents’ cognitive ability
    • Vague about mechanisms and processes of change
    • Does not account for variability in children’s performance
    • Cognitive development is not as stage-like as Piaget suggested
    • Undervalues the sociocultural environment’s influence on cognitive development
  18. Core knowledge hypothesis
    • Infants are born with rudimentary knowledge of the world
    • Children elaborate knowledge based on experience
  19. Naïve physics:
    infants rapidly create a reasonably accurate theory of objects ’ basic properties
  20. when do children understand object permanence
    4.5 months
  21. when do children understand that liquids, but not solids, change shape when moved
    5 months
  22. when do children understand gravity and objects movements
    6 months
  23. Naïve biology
    Infants: use motion to discriminate animate from inanimate objects
  24. When do children know that animate objects are self-propelled, move in irregular paths, and act to achieve goals
    12-15 months
  25. Teleological explanations
    Living things and their parts exist for a purpose: dogs have fur so we can pet them
  26. Essentialism
    Although invisible, all living things have an essence giving them their identity
  27. Preschoolers ’ naïve biology limitations
    • Do not know genes are basis for inheritance
    • Think body parts have intentions or desires
    • Do not know plants are living things (because not moving)
  28. Mental hardware:
    neural and mental structures enabling the mind to operate
  29. Mental software:
    mental programs allowing for performance of specific tasks
  30. Attention:
    when sensory information receives additional cognitive processing
  31. Orienting response
    • emotional and physical reactions to unfamiliar stimulus
    • Alerts infant to new or dangerous stimuli
  32. Habituation
    • lessened reactions to a stimulus after repeated presentations
    • Helps infant ignore biologically insignificant events
  33. Classical conditioning
    • When an initially “neutral” stimulus (e.g., a bell) becomes able to elicit a response (e.g., salivation) that previously was caused only by another stimulus (e.g., food)
    • Infants are capable of this conditioning regarding feeding or other pleasant events
    • Infants are less capable of this regarding aversive stimuli
  34. Operant conditioning
    when a behavior’s consequence make this behavior’s future occurrence more likely (reinforcement) or less likely (punishment)
  35. Imitation
    • learning a new behavior by observing others
    • Older infants imitate, but do 2- to 3-week-olds? (controversial)
  36. Autobiographical memory
    • exists for significant events in their own past
    • is richer when parents engage children in conversations about the past, or ask for expanded descriptions of the past
    • appears as a sense of self emerges
  37. Basis for age-related memory changes
    • Hippocampus and amygdala develop early
    • 6-month-olds can store new information
    • Frontal cortex develops in second year
    • toddlers begin retrieving information from long-term memory
  38. age at which children distinguish 2 from 3 objects and 3 from 4
    5 months old
  39. age at which children perform simple addition and subtraction
    • 6-month-olds compare quantities by ratio
    • 10-month-olds know the larger of two quantities
  40. One-to-one principle:
    • number name for each object counted
    • master up to 5 numbers with preschoolers
  41. Stable-order principle:
    • number names must be counted in the same order
    • mastered up to 5 numbers with preschoolers
  42. Cardinality principle
    • last number in a counting sequence denotes how many objects there are
    • mastered by preschoolers for numbers up to 5
  43. age at which princples of numbers mastered up to 5 numbers
  44. age at which principles of numbers mastered up to 9 numbers
  45. Lev Vygotsky (1896-1934)
    • Russian psychologist; died young (37), did not fully develop his theory beyond the period of childhood
    • scaffolding, zone of proximal development, private speech
  46. Intersubjectivity
    all participants having a mutual, shared understanding of an activity (e.g., game rules)
  47. Guided participation
    cognition develops via structured activities with more skilled others
  48. Apprenticeship
    • the process during which a more skilled master teaches a skill or task to a less skilled “apprentice” such as a child
    • Promotes cognitive development
  49. Zone of proximal development
    • difference between what children can do with or without assistance
    • Providing learning experiences within this zone maximizes achievement
  50. Scaffolding
    giving just enough assistance to match learner’s needs
  51. Private speech
    • “talking” to yourself to self-guide and self-regulate behavior
    • Speech is audible, but isn ’ t directed at others, nor is it intended for others to hear
    • Later becomes internalized as inner speech
    • In its most mature form, inner speech is unintelligible to all but the thinker and it does not resemble spoken language
  52. Phonemes
    smallest, unique sounds
  53. age at which children can distinguish between vowels and consonants
  54. Infant-directed speech
    • adults speak slowly and exaggerate changes in pitch and volume when talking to infants
    • Sometimes called motherese because it was first observed in mothers
  55. age that cooing begins
    2 months
  56. age that babbling begins
    6 months
  57. age at which children incorporate intonation or changes in pitch typical of the language they hear
    8-11 months
  58. age at which children use their first words
    • 1 year
    • Usually consonant-vowel pairs, such as “dada” or “wawa ”
  59. age at which children have a vocabulary of a few hundred words
    By 2 years
  60. age at which children know around 10,000 words
    By age 6
  61. Gesturing
    infants will point, wave, smack lips to convey messages
  62. age at which children gain insight that words are symbols for objects, actions, and properties
    12 to 18 months
  63. age at which children have an explosive rate of word learning
    18 months
  64. Fast-mapping
    rapid connection of new words to their exact referents
  65. Joint attention
    parents labeling objects, plus children relying on adults ’ behavior to interpret the label ’ s meaning
  66. Constraints on word names Rules children use to learn new words
    • An unfamiliar word refers to the object not already having a name
    • Names refer to the whole object instead of its parts
    • A new name (T-rex) for an already named object (dinosaur) denotes the object’s subcategory name
  67. Sentence cues
    • children interpret unfamiliar words in a sentence using different cues
    • Rely on words they already know and the sentence’s structure to infer a new word’s meaning or its function in a sentence
    • Rely on the sentence’s context
    • Knowing to which object a word refers by attending to the sentence’s adjective (e.g., the boz means the middle block with wings instead of any other blocks without wings)
  68. Cognitive factors leading to language learning
    • rapid cognitive growth and skill cause an explosion in new word learning
    • Development of goals and intentions motivates children to learn language
    • Improved attentional and perceptual skills (e.g., shape bias)
    • Developmental changes in word meaning
  69. before this age children learn words relatively slowly (one word/day)
    18 months
  70. age by which children learn many new words daily
    • 24 months
    • Greater use of language and social cues
    • Reduced use of attentional cues
  71. Underextension
    defining a word too narrowly (e.g., using “car” to refer only to the family car)
  72. Overextension
    • defining a word too broadly (e.g., using “doggie” to refer to all four-legged animals)
    • Less common in word comprehension
    • More common in word production
    • May reflect another fast-mapping rule
    • If you cannot remember the object’s actual name, say the name of a related object (e.g., say “doggie” for a picture of a goat)
  73. Expressive style:
    • social emphasis
    • Vocabularies include social interaction and question words plus naming words
  74. Referential style
    • intellectual emphasis
    • Vocabularies consist mainly of words naming objects, persons, or actions
    • Vocabularies consist of few social interaction words or question words
  75. Parents can assist in learning language by
    • speaking to children frequently
    • naming objects that grab children’s attention
    • using grammatically sophisticated speech
    • reading to children while carefully describing pictures and asking questions
    • encouraging watching TV programs that emphasize new word learning, tell stories, and ask questions (e.g., Sesame Street, Blues Clues)
  76. age at which two- and three-word sentences based on simple formulas (e.g., actor + action) used
    18 months
  77. Reflect telegraphic speech
    using words directly relevant to meaning and no more (“I no sleep”)
  78. Reflect over-regularization errors
    applying rules to words that are exceptions to the rule (“I goed home”)
  79. Exclude grammatical morphemes
    words or endings making a sentence grammatical
  80. Linguistic solution
    • innate neural mechanisms guide the learning of grammar
    • Sentences breaking grammatical rules activate specific left hemisphere regions
  81. Critical period for language and grammar acquisition
    birth to 12 years
  82. Cognitive solution
    • children look for patterns, detect irregularities, and create rules
    • Grammatical knowledge reflects multiple examples stored in memory instead of being innate
  83. Social-interaction solution
    eclectic integration of behavioral, linguistic, and cognitive solutions, plus the importance of accurate communication during social interaction promotes language and grammatical development
  84. Effective communication requires
    • making sure to speak in language the listener understands
    • paying attention while listening and making sure the speaker knows if he/she is being understood
    • taking turns as speaker and listener
    • before 2 years: parents encourage conservational turn-taking and often model turn-taking
    • after 2 years: spontaneous turn-taking is common
    • by 3 years: adjust speech to listeners, but often ignore problems in received messages
  85. age at which children have deliberate communication efforts through pointing and looking at another
    10 months
  86. age at which children communicate through speech; initiate conversations
    12 months
  87. age at which children adjust messages to listener ’ s knowledge and the context (e.g., a word ’ s ambiguity)
    Preschool age
  88. up to this age children often do not realize when a message is ambiguous
    Preschool age
  89. at this age children can evaluate when a message is consistent and clear
    Elementary school age
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chapter 4 human growth and development
2013-10-05 14:54:57
psychology growth development language

chapter 4 exam review.
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