Test 2

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nadiaessaqi
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238846
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Test 2
Updated:
2013-10-05 11:32:32
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Bio
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  1. Diffusion
    Movement of molecules of any substance to spread evenly into available space. Dire to Rambo. Thermal motion of molecules.occurs along  concentrate gradient of diffuUrsulaUrsula
  2. osmosis
    Concentrate action gradient of water in biol Water diffused across graintent. From lower impermeable solute concentration to an higher impermeable solute concentration ,generating osmotic pressure.(from net movement of water.concentration of solutes determines if osmosis will occure.
  3. Filtration
    Movement of h20 and smaller molecules thru a filter (porous membrane) under hydrostTic pressure,leaving larger molecules proteins bbehind occurs in capilaries with capillary walls acting as filter and hydrostatic blood pressure generated by hheart retained proteins recover most of h20 by osmosis
  4. Active transport
    • Movement off a molecule against its concentration gradient treasuries expenditure of energy(up to 40percent of a cells energy supply)
    • carroed out by pumps ATP powered carrier pproteins sodium potassium plump moves 3 sodium out of cell and 2potassiums ions into Tthe cell at a ttime used to mob na+ k+ ca+ h+
  5. Bulk trnsport
    • Used to move large molecules proteins and polysaccharides and larger molecules across cell membrane,required expenditure of energy
    • I
  6. endocytosis
    Intake of biological molecules and particulate matter by formation of new vestibules from the cell membrane
  7. Phagocytosis
    Engulfing of a particle by pseudopIsis
  8. ExocytosisExecutors is
    Section of biological molecules by fusion of vestibules with cell membrane
  9. Transcytosis
    Combines endocytosis and executors is to selectively transport a substance particularly from one end of a cell to another ;moves substances thru
  10. The cell cycle
    The series of changes the cell goes thru from the time it forms to the time it divides
  11. Cell cycle check points
    Actions of several types of proteins control the cell cycle
  12. Restriction checkpoint(cell cycle
    Determines wether a cell divides ,stay specialized and performs its physiolfeatures unction then die
  13. Interphase ( cell cycle
    • Cell grows by producing proteins and cytoplasmic organelles including replication of centro some replicates its chromosomes
    • G1phase 5-6hr,Sphase 10-12hrchromosmes are replicated,G24-6 hrcentrosomes replicate
  14. Chromosome structure
    • In a non dividing cell each chromosome is a long,thin chromatin fiber(can not be individually seen Nader microscope)
    • (after DNA rep) chromosomes condense by dense coiling and folding of the chromatin fiber
  15. Sister chromatids
    A the start each chromosomes consist of 2 sister chromatids WAC containing an identical DNA molecule attached along their length by adhesive proteins
  16. Centromere
    • Point of closest attachment of sister chromatids
    • during cell division
  17. G2 interphase
    • Nuclear envelope bounds the nucleus
    • nucleolus ppresent chromosomes due condenseddue condensed
  18. Prophase
    Nucleoli s disappears,nuclear envelope fragments, chromosomes condensed,mitotic sprinkle forms between centrosomes, microtublues of mitotic,spindle attach to centrosomes at centromeres;pull chromosomes back and forth
  19. Metaphase
    20mins is spendthrift in metaphase longest stage centrosomes aopposite poles of ccell chromosomes arranged on the metaphase(equatorial plane)
  20. Controls of cell cycle somatic cells
    All somatic cells divide a limited number of times 40-60 then die because of shortening of telomeres non coding chromosomes ends at eac DNA replication
  21. Embryonic cells controls of cell cycle
    enzymes telomerase present at much lower levels in somatic cells restores telomeres allowing the large number of cell divisions nessary for development of a new organism
  22. Growth factor
    • Protein released by certain cells that stimulates other cells to divide 
    • platelet -derived growth factor PDgf stimulates division of fibroblasts connective tissue to heal a wound
  23. Cell death
    A cell that does not divide or differentiate undergoes apoptosis-programmed cell death
  24. Apoptosis
    Sculpts organs during development causes i uterus to string after cell birth peels away damaged skin after sunburn synchronized wit mitosis
  25. Death receptor
    • On doomed cell membrane receives signal to die actiates
    • destroy enzymes that replicate and repair DNA 
    • activates enzymes that cut up dna
    • fracture mmitochondria abolish the cells ability to adhere to other ccells dying cell rounds up
    • cell membrane forms blebs(bulges)
    • nucleus bursts,mitochondria ddecomposes cell shaders pieces of cell membrane
  26. Cancer
    Set of diseases caused by somatic cells escaping control me ha isms that normally limit their ggrowth caused b mutations DNA changes in genes that regulate cell cycle
  27. Proto-oncogenes
    Code for proteins that st u,ate normal cell growth and division converted into cancer causing oncogenes by a genetic change that increases the amount of protoncogene end product-increase the activity of photo oncogen
  28. Tumor suppressgenes ok
    Code for proteins that prevent cancer by repairing DNA controlling cell adhesion or inhibiting cyclecycle
  29. ProgressionProgression of cancer
    Transformation conversion of normal cell to a cancer ccell more than one somatic cell mutation is generally needed to produce full fledged ccancer including appearence of at least one oncogene and loss of several tumor-suppressor genes' body's immune system destroys transformed cells,surviving transformed cells proliferate,forming
  30. Tumor
    • Mass of abnormal cells within normal ttissue benign tumor abnormal cells remain at the original site ca be completely removed by surgery
    • malignant tumor abnormal cell becomes
  31. Factors contributing to cancer and cancer treatment
    • Inheritance of aN oncogene or a mutant tumor suppressor gene predisposes an individual to cancer 15% of colorectal cancers 5-10%breast cancer 
    • risk of cancer is increased by expose to mutagens(chemicals and radiation)
    • incidence of cancer increases greatly with age
    • localized malignant rumors can be treated with high energy radiation(cancer cells loose the ability to repair damage to DNA)

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