MUSC 100 - Musical Terms
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. What would you like to do?
- -a perception of musical organization
- -controls time and emotion, allows one to gain understanding of new music, allows one to appreciate and communicate effectively music
the sensation of present, past and future
What makes time seem to have "direction"?
the present seems to be a consequence of the past and it will affect the future.
How can music events direct time? (3)
predictable pattern, repetition of formal structures, formulaic passages
Name 4 immediately perceptible properties of sound. (subjective and objective)
- loudness --> amplitude
- timbre --> spectrum
- pitch --> frequency
- length --> duration
how much a sound dominates one's sensation
the quality of a sound that indicates what is making it and how
the quantity in which sounds with the same loudness and timbre can differ
a series of instructions on how to perform a piece of music
Why use musical symbols over standard language?
They are quicker to read (once you're trained) as well as more compact.
Name the 3 disadvantages to using musical symbols.
They are relational (f - fff), non-intuitive and non-proportional.
the change TO a sound FROM silence or another sound. The beginning of a process that the release ends.
the change FROM a sound TO silence or another sound
a particular instant (at which a change is perceived)/ a moment in time
duration (time span)
the time that passes from an earlier timepoint to a later one. (time from onset to onset/release)
- the duration specifically from onset to onset (sound, not silence--> add value of note + succeeding rest)
- does not match the notation
the temporally directed quality of the duration of a process
when a process starts
when a process ceases
- a timepoint that draws our attention, a distinction of a timepoint compared to earlier timepoints.
- used to support musical structure
What creates accent?
change --> the greater the change, the greater the accent?
What is the role of accent?
- to draw attention to important events/notes.
- It divides time, calling attention to moments that are in the past while continuity directs time, reaching into the future.
- continuing a sound.
- a process that produces uninterrupted sound and usually unchanging loudness.
- makes a release sound like the end of an activity that began at a past onset.
- a way to create continuity and to make time directional. Sustaining makes the timepoint of the sound's release sound as if it is a consequence/result of the timepoint of the sound's attack
a series of consecutive durations --> changes in sound mark durations
a single line of independent melody
fff --> very very loud
ff --> very loud
mf --> somewhat loud
mp --> somewhat soft
pp --> very soft
ppp --> very very soft
increase in loudness to draw attention to a timepoint
sfz --> ^_ (together)
fortepiano - loud then suddenly soft
- timepoint emphasized by duration of a note
- occurs when on a note that is longer than the immediately preceding note
- helps group notes into meters
interonset durational accent
stress at the onset of an interonset duration that is longer than the immediately preceding interonset duration
loudness, specified by descriptions and symbols
a process of gradual INCREASE in a perceivable and easily comparable aspect of sound (louder, rise in pitch, rougher timbre)
a process of gradual DECREASE in a perceivable and easily comparable aspect of sound (softer, fall in pitch, smoother timbre)
an activity that makes the present sound like it is a result of the past, and that enables the listener to anticipate a future.
- the way we perform sounds
- the way that a sound is attacked, sustained, and released. Affects how it connects to other notes, affecting the duration, continuity and accent.
- is different for every instrument
- the release of each sound happens at the onset of the next sound; there is no silence between them
- emphasizes continuity
a sound is released just before the next onset
- the sound is half its written value, exaggerating the silence before the onset of the next sound.
- interrupts continuity
- the sound is sustained evenly for its entire duration. Sometimes, the onset/duration of the sound is exaggerated.
- emphasizes and accents continuity
can create durational accents
music of only one voice
music of 2 or more concurrent voices
How is the long series of sounds in a voice analogous to a single sound?
It comes from a single voice (no harmony), giving it continuity
- a rhythm/different durations in a voice which has continuity
- a distinctive beginning and ending
We can't literally bring back a past sound, but we can reproduce a previous sound's.... (4)
timbre, pitch, loudness or duration
Repeating a segment creates continuity more effectively than repeating a sound because a segment is usually more...
We hear a beginning when there is a... (4)
- substantial change from (relative) silence to sound
- substantial change in sound (dynamics, timbre, register, tempo, etc.)
- onset that starts a repetition
We hear an ending... (4)
- before an explicit beginning
- at a significant change from sound to silence
- when a motive comes to an end
- at the last release of a rhythm
happens when we recognize the ending before it (explicit ending)
we recognize this beginning or if there is a significant change from silence to sound
happens if we recognize the beginning after it (explicit beginning)
happens if we recognize this ending or if there is a significant change from sound to silence.
the way that brief segments combine into long segments
when the end of a segment is so convincing that no subsequent beginning or change is needed to articulate it
Name 3 ways of creating closure
- end the repetition
- culmination of a process
- formulaic- using a formula (ex: 1+1)
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