HSC322_CH2

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Author:
itzlinds
ID:
238849
Filename:
HSC322_CH2
Updated:
2013-10-14 17:23:06
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Kinesiology Musculature
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Kinesiology: musculature
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  1. how does a muscle always contract?

    toward the proximal attachment
    toward the joint
    towards its center
    towards the distal attachment
    toward its center
  2. during the return of the torso to the floor while performing sit ups, the abdominal muscles are working:

    eccentrically
    isometerically
    isokinetically
    concentrically
    eccentrically
  3. the 3 muscle types below are the same cross sectional area. which can produce the greatest force?

    fusiform
    bipennate
    longitudinal
    bipennate
  4. what is the role of the stabilizer?
    supports body segment against pull of contracting muscles
  5. what is the role of the antagonist?
    causes opposite action of desired motion
  6. what is the role of the agonist?
    prime mover
  7. what is the role of the neutralizer?
    eliminates undesired secondary muscle action
  8. which type of muscle fiber is anaerboic?

    fast twitch fibers
    slow twitch fibers
    fast twitch fibers
  9. which type of muscle fiber can have a longer duration of muscle activity?

    fast twitch fibers
    slow twitch fibers
    slow twitch fibers
  10. which type of muscle fibers create the greatest force production?

    fast twitch fibers
    slow twitch fibers
    fast twitch fibers
  11. list and describe the 4 properties that are unique to muscle:
    • excitability: responds to a stimulus; usually chemical action potential (electrical) from CNS
    • extensibility: stretched; lengthened; the ability to be passively stretched
    • elasticity: the ability to return from stretched position to its resting neutral position
    • contractility: actively shortens; produces tension at the ends and pulls toward the center

    • extensibility/elasticity relate to tendons
    • excitability/contracitiity relate to ligaments

    • -avg. muscle fiber: can shorten to 1/2 its resting position; stretch to 150% of its resting position; refers to "amplitude of action"
    • -the ability to stretched is related to length of the fibers and inversely related to the cross-sectional area
    • -the longer the fiber the longer it can be stretched (longitudional muscle); the thicker the fiber the limited ability to stretch (less stretch)
  12. list and describe the 4 layers of skeletal muscle:
    • epimysium: outer connective tissue
    • perimysium: covers smaller bundles
    • endomysium: covers individual muscle fibers
    • muscle fiber: 1-3 inches; up to 12-14 inches long
  13. describe the structure and fxn of the architecutre of muscle fibers:
    • sacrcolemma: surrounds muscle fibers; cell membranes, contains sacrolplasm
    • fxn of sarcoplasm: (1) nerve impulse propergates (2) fuses with tendon then attaches to bone; transmits force to segment that it moves kineisology fxn
    • sarcoplasm: provides energy; nutirents (glycogen)
    • myofibrils
  14. the formation of cross-bridges produce:
    force
  15. list the contractile proteins within the sacromere
    • myosin: heads attach to actin
    • actin
  16. describe the fxn of Type I slow twitch fibers
    • endurance based
    • smaller fibers
    • red in color
    • greater blood supply
    • greater oxygen
    • aerobic
    • produce force over greater peroid of time with less intensity of force
    • stability
    • example: found in the lumbar region
  17. describe the fxn of Type II fast twitch fibers
    • not good for duration activity
    • produces a more intense force
    • fatigue-ability
    • explosive activity
    • 20-30% more force than slow twitch
    • example: gastroc (running, jumping)
  18. describe the attachments of tendons:
    • mobility attachments
    • smaller area of attachments
    • forces for mobility
    • relationship of length of tendon b/w muscle-bone
    • short tendon: closer muscle to bone; fxn stabilizing
    • long tendon: further muscle to bone; fxn mobility
  19. describe the fxn and benefits of an aponeurosis:
    • sheath of fibirous tissue; band
    • wide area of attachment
    • spreads force out
    • lower pressure
    • good for stability
  20. describe the proximal (orgin) of attachments:
    • short tendon
    • muscle is closer to the attachment site of the bone
    • stability
  21. describe the distal (instertion) of attachments:
    • long tendons
    • muscle is further from the attachment site of the bone
    • fxn: mobility
  22. describe the muscle pull in relation to attachment site:
    • -if a muscle crosses a joint and the attachment is close, the force of the muscle will be for motion
    • -if a muscle crosses a join and the attachment is farther away, the fxn will be for stablility (ex: biceps brachii)
    • -equal amount of contraction from proximal-distal ends
  23. describe the reverse muscle action:
    • open chain of motion: distal segment is free to move
    • closed chain of motion: distal segment is fixed

    example: biceps: what causes only disal segment to move? newton's 2nd law; the proximal segment is more mass attached to the shoulder vs distal is the wrist, fingers, ect. proximal has more weight and proximal is closed chain, distal chain is open
  24. list the 7 types of fiber arrangements:
    • longitudinal (strap)
    • quadrate (flat)
    • fusiform (spindle)
    • fan/ radiate
    • unipennate
    • bipennate
    • mulipennate
  25. describe the characteristics and benefits of longitudinal/strap fiber arragnements:
    • longer
    • smaller in size; less thick
    • small diameter throughout the length of the muscle
    • generally does not produce alot of force
    • benefit: the motion itself; produce force over a greater ROM
    • long muscle fibers
    • examples: sternoclastoid, sartorius
  26. describe the characteristics and benefits of quadrate/ flat fiber arrangement:
    • fibers are parelle
    • muscles are flat
    • has 4 sides
    • benefit: stability forces; large area of attachment (vertebrae)
    • examples: pronator quadratis (of wrist), quadritis lumborum (spine), rhomboid muscle
  27. describe the characteristics and benefits of fusiform/ spindle fiber arrangements:
    • thin, tapered
    • has a BELLY
    • fibers run parelle to long axis
    • proximal attachment over a small, wide area
    • distal has a smaller point of attachment
    • can be short, long, thin or thick
    • benefit: more muscle fibers, more cross bridges can be formed, more force
    • examples: biceps brachii, brachioradialis
  28. describe the characteristcs and benefits of triangular/radiate fiber arrangements:
    • paraelle fibers to the line of pull/long axis of the muscle
    • proximal attachment over a wide area; force for stability
    • distal attachment is smaller surface area; force for mobility
    • example: trapezius
  29. describe the characteristics and benefits of unipennate fiber arragenments:
    • fibers are at a diagonial
    • proximal fibers run vertically, proximal close attachments
    • distal longer attachments; mobility

    benefits: important in fine motor adjustments; controls inversion/eversion of the foot; stability

    • as the muscle as a whole contracts, force pulls up
    • -overall direction of the force is not in the same direction of the fiber, but has a componet in the vertical direction
    • -causes a slight pull > that direction, overall
  30. describe the characteristics and benefits of bipennate fiber arrangements:
    • central tendon with fibers running off at 2 angles
    • if fibers shorten half their length; will not shorten to  50% of the muscle in regards to fiber length
    • benefit: produces a tugging force; tendon doesnt move; more angled fibers into a area than paralle fibers; GREATER FORCE OVER LESS ROM
    • drawback: individual muscle fibers do not generally create the direction of force
  31. describe the characteristics of multipennate fiber arrangements:
    • multiple tendons
    • multiple angles of fibers between tendons
    • benefit: more fibers into same area
    • example: deltoid
  32. the direction of the force that the muscle is producing is called:
    line of pull
  33. muscle-pull analysis:

    open chain elbow flexion:
    Point of application:
    Location of LOP:
    Direction of LOP:
    • Point of application: distal
    • Location of LOP: anterior
    • Direction: superior
  34. muscle-pull analysis:

    open chain hip aDDuction
    point of attachment:
    location of LOP:
    Direction of LOP:
    • point of attachment: distal
    • location of LOP: inferior
    • direction of LOP: medial
  35. the angle between the line of pull and the portion of the mechanical axis between point of application and the joint is called:
    angle of pull

    -in anatomical position most have a small angle of pull
  36. the parallel components of the force vector for an angle of pull that is less than 90 degrees

    the parallel component causes:
    the perpendicular component causes:
    • parallel: compression and stability
    • perpendicular: rotation
  37. when the angle of pull is equal to 90 degrees all the force is going to cause____ and the position is most ____
    • rotation
    • stable
  38. muscle shortening; producing force; acceleration, and "power phase" are terms used to describe:
    concentric muscle action
  39. muscle lengthening; producing force or resisting a force; deccelerating; slowing; controlling are terms used to describe:
    eccentric muscle action
  40. same muscle length; no movement at joint; counteracting; oppose gravity or another muscle are terms used to describe:
    isometric
  41. same speed as a decription of exercise equimpent; max effort to move the segment is called:
    isokinetic
  42. in the length-tension relationship; describe active tension:
    • created by muscle fibers
    • sarcomere is actively producing force
  43. in regards to the length-tension curve (graph) to produce the greatest amount of force, the total tension be [greater than/less than] beyond resting length:
    greater than

    max force is produced when the muscle is just stretched past resting length
  44. the diminished ability of a muscle to produce force is called:
    active insufficiency

    • -if too flexed, over shortend>lack of force production
    • -if too stretched, overstretched> lack of force production
  45. the term for an inactive muscle is not long enough to allow opposing motion to occur is called:
    passive insufficiency

    • ex: touching toes; hamstrings
    • example: GH joint; long head of the biceps crosses GH also supinates arm, so pronate w/ extension of GH joing
  46. the force velocity curve tells us that the force muscule produces decreases with the speed the muscle can contract

    the faster the muscle shortens, the ____ force is produced
    the heavier force (object); the velocity ____
    • less
    • slows down
  47. a muscle is attached distal to the elbow. its line of pull is located anterior to the axis of rotation of the elbow and is directed in  a superior dirction

    what segment is moved:
    what motion occurs at the elbow:
    • segment moved: forearm
    • motion: elbow flexion
  48. a muscle attached superiorly to the hip has a line of pull located posterior to the axis of teh rotation of the hip and is directed in an inferior direction

    what segment is moved:
    what motion occurs at the hip:
    • segment moved: trunk
    • motion: extension
  49. a muscle is attached distal to the shoulder. its line of pull is located anterior to the axis of rotation of teh shoulder and is directed in a medial direction:

    what segment is moved:
    what motion occurs at teh shoulder:
    • segment moved: humerus
    • motion: internal rotation
  50. a muscle is attached proximal to the ankle. its line of pull is located anterior of the axis of rotation of the ankle and is directed inferiorly

    what segment is moved:
    what motion occurs at the ankle:
    • segment moved: tibia, lower leg
    • motion: dorsiflexion
  51. describe the aBDuction of the humerus

    point of attachment:
    location of LOP:
    dirction of pull:
    • point of attachment: distal
    • location of LOP: lateral
    • direction: superior
  52. consider the motion of lifing ones foot up in perperation for placing it on a bench. analyze the ankle joint

    Joint Type:
    Joint motion:
    plane:
    axis:
    • joint type: hinge
    • joint motion: dorsiflexion
    • plane: sagittal
    • axis:  medial-lateral
  53. consider the motion of lifing ones foot up in perperation for placing it on a bench. analyze the knee joint

    Joint Type:
    Joint motion:
    plane:
    axis:
    • joint type: hinge
    • joint motion: flexion
    • plane: sagittal
    • axis: medial-lateral
  54. consider the motion of lifing ones foot up in perperation for placing it on a bench. analyze the hip joint

    Joint Type:
    Joint motion:
    plane:
    axis:
    • joint type: ball and socket
    • joint motin: flexion
    • plane: sagittal
    • axis: medial-lateral
  55. starting and ending in a standing position, analyze the hip joint in the motion of touching one's toes ... on the way down:

    segment moved:
    plane&axis:
    muscles:
    muscle action:
    • segment moved: trunk/torso
    • plane&axis: sagittal/medial-lateral
    • muscles: hamstrings; glutes; quads; hip extensors
    • muscle action:eccentric
  56. starting and ending in a standing position, analyze the hip joint in the motion of touching one's toes... on the way back up

    segment moved:
    plane&axis:
    muscles:
    muscle action:
    • segment moved: trunk/torso
    • plane& axis: sagittal/ medial-lateral
    • muscles: hamstrings; hip extensors
    • muscle action: concentric
  57. the the motion or exercise, write the type of muscle action (isometric, concentric, eccentric, or no muscle action)

    Lay prone on a table with your knee in full extension: Maintain your knee in full extension

    Quadriceps:
    Hamstrings:
    • Quadraiceps: No action; gravity is pulling the tibia down
    • Hamstring: No action; due to the design of the joint; hard end feel
  58. the the motion or exercise, write the type of muscle action (isometric, concentric, eccentric, or no muscle action)

    Lay prone on a table with your knee in full extension: Very slowly flex your knee maximally

    Quadriceps:
    Hamstrings:
    • Quadriceps: 1st phase- no action; 2nd phase - eccentric
    • Hamstrings: 1st phase - concentric; 2nd phase - no action/verticle/gravity/passive
  59. the the motion or exercise, write the type of muscle action (isometric, concentric, eccentric, or no muscle action)

    Lay prone on a table with your knee in full extension: Maintain your knee in full flexion

    Quadriceps:
    Hamstrings:
    • Quadriceps: No action; End range; soft end feel; approximation of soft tissue counteracts gravity
    • Hamstings: No action; End range; soft end feel; approximation of soft tissue counteracts gravity
  60. the the motion or exercise, write the type of muscle action (isometric, concentric, eccentric, or no muscle action)

    Lay prone on a table with your knee in full extension: From the fully flexed position, extend your knee fully as fast as possible but stop immediately before reaching maximal extension

    Quadriceps:
    Hamstrings:
    • Quadriceps: 1st phase (quick motion) - concentric; 2nd phase - no action
    • Hamstrings: 1st phase (quick motion)- no action; 2nd phase - eccentric
  61. the the motion or exercise, write the type of muscle action (isometric, concentric, eccentric, or no muscle action)

    Lay prone on a table with your knee in full extension: From the fully flexed position, very slowly extend your knee fully

    Quadriceps:
    Hamstrings:
    • Quadriceps: 1st phase (full flex to 90 degrees) - concentric; 2nd phase- no action, passively stretched by gravity, pulls tibia down
    • hamstrings: 1st phase- no action; 2nd phase- Eccentric
  62. for the motion or exercise, write the type of muscle action (isometric, concentric, eccentric, or no muscle action)

    Begin sitting on the edge of the table with your knee in full extension: maintain your knee in full extension

    Quadriceps:
    Hamstrings:
    • Quadriceps: isometric
    • Hamstrings: no action
  63. for the motion or exercise, write the type of muscle action (isometric, concentric, eccentric, or no muscle action)

    Begin sitting on the edge of the table with your knee in full extension: very slowly, flex your knee maximally

    Quadriceps:
    Hamstrings:
    • Quadriceps: 1st phase- eccentric; 2nd phase-no action, tibia is parallel with gravity
    • hamstrings: 1st phase- no action; 2nd phase- concentric
  64. for the motion or exercise, write the type of muscle action (isometric, concentric, eccentric, or no muscle action)

    Begin sitting on the edge of the table with your knee in full extension: Maintain your knee in full flexion

    Quadriceps:
    Hamstrings:
    • quadriceps: no action
    • hamstring: isometric
  65. for the motion or exercise, write the type of muscle action (isometric, concentric, eccentric, or no muscle action)

    Begin sitting on the edge of the table with your knee in full extension: maintain your knee in approximately 90 degress of flexion

    Quadriceps:
    Hamstrings:
    • quadriceps: no action
    • hamstrings: no action
  66. for the motion or exercise, write the type of muscle action (isometric, concentric, eccentric, or no muscle action)

    Begin sitting on the edge of the table with your knee in full extension: from the fully flexed position, slowly extend your knee fully

    Quadriceps:
    Hamstrings:
    • quadriceps: 1st phase- no action; 2nd phase - concentric
    • hamstrings: 1st phase- eccentrice; 2nd phase- no active
  67. for the motion or exercise, write the type of muscle action (isometric, concentric, eccentric, or no muscle action)

    stand on one leg and move the other knee as directed: maintain your knee in full extension 

    Quadriceps:
    Hamstrings:
    • quadriceps: no action
    • Hamstrings: no action
  68. for the motion or exercise, write the type of muscle action (isometric, concentric, eccentric, or no muscle action)

    stand on one leg and move the other knee as directed: very slowly flex your knee

    Quadriceps:
    Hamstrings
    • quadriceps: no action
    • hamstrings: concentric
  69. for the motion or exercise, write the type of muscle action (isometric, concentric, eccentric, or no muscle action)

    stand on one leg and move the other knee as directed: from the fully flexed position, slowly extend your knee fully

    Quadriceps:
    Hamstrings
    • quadriceps: no action; gravity causes tibia to move
    • hamstrings: eccentric
  70. for the motion or exercise, write the type of muscle action (isometric, concentric, eccentric, or no muscle action)

    stand on one leg and move the other knee as directed: from the fully flexed position, extend your knee fully as fast as possible

    Quadriceps:
    Hamstrings
    • quadriceps: concentric
    • hamstrings: no action

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