chapter 3 hg+d

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sc174534
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chapter 3 hg+d
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2013-10-05 11:48:35
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psychology growth development
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chapter 3 human growth and development
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  1. Reflexes:
    • unlearned responses triggered by specific stimuli
    • Reflexes reflect the health of the child’s nervous system
  2. The five Apgar scores
    • 1. Heart rate
    • 2. Respiration
    • 3. Muscle tone
    • 4. Reflexes
    • 5. Skin tone
  3. Neonatal Behavioral Assessment Scale (NBAS)
    • Includes 28 behavioral and 18 reflex items
    • Assesses four systems
    • Autonomic: body regulation (e.g., breathing)
    • Motor: activity level and control of body
    • State: maintaining states (e.g., alertness)
    • Social: interacting with people
  4. infant states
    • Alert inactivity:
    • calm, eyes open and attentive; deliberately inspecting environment
    • Waking activity:
    • open but unfocused eyes; uncoordinated motions
    • Crying: cries vigorously; motion is agitated and uncoordinated
    • Sleeping: eyes closed; degree of activity and quality of breathing alternate
  5. Basic cry
    • Starts softly and builds in volume and intensity
    • Often seen when the child is hungry
  6. Mad cry
    More intense and louder
  7. Pain cry
    Starts with a loud wail, followed by a long pause, then gasping
  8. Newborns sleep an average of
    16-18 hours/day
  9. Sleep cycles
    • Newborns: 4-hour cycle; 3 hours sleep and 1 hour awake
    • By 3 to 4 months: 5-to-6-hour cycle
    • By 6 months: sleep 10 to 12 hours at night
  10. REM sleep
    • 50% of newborn sleep
    • 25% by 12 months
  11. co-sleeping
    The practice of sleeping in the same room or bed with the child
  12. SIDS: sudden, inexplicable death of a healthy baby
    • Risk factors
    • Premature birth and low birth weight
    • Parental smoking
    • Child overheating and sleeping on stomach
    • African-American infants (often sleep on stomach)
  13. Rothbart ’ s (2007) three dimensions
    • (surgency/extroversion) generally happy, active, vocal, and seeks stimulation
    • (negative affect) angry, fearful, frustrated, shy, and not easily soothed
    • (effortful control) focuses attention, is not easily distracted, and can inhibit impulses
  14. Heredity and twin studies on temperament
    • Identical twins are more similar in temperament than are fraternal twins
    • Heredity influences negative affect more than other temperament dimensions
    • Heredity contributes more to temperament in childhood than during infancy
    • addition expressions of temperament
  15. Parental characteristics influence temperament
    • Parental responsiveness reduces infant emotionality
    • Depressed mothers have more fearful infants
  16. Growth of the body
    • Infants double their weight by three months
    • Infants triple their weight by one year
    • Height depends largely on heredity
  17. New foods should be introduced one at a time
    • to determine allergy
    • consistency of swallowing reflex
  18. Malnutrition
    • Malnourished children develop more slowly
    • Malnutrition is most damaging during infancy due to rapid growth rate
    • brain, body, all developing
    • Giving malnourished children adequate diets is challenging because they are listless, quiet, and inactive
  19. Neurons consist of a
    soma, dendrites, the axon (mylen sheath coating maturing), and terminal buttons
  20. Cerebral cortex:
    the wrinkled surface of the brain
  21. Hemispheres:
    the two halves of the brain
  22. Corpus callosum:
    the thick band of fibers connecting the two hemispheres
  23. Emerging Brain Structures
    • At 3 weeks after conception, the neural plate, a flat structure of cells, forms
    • By 28 weeks after conception, the brain has all the neurons it will ever have
    • In the 4th month of prenatal development myelinated sheaths form
    • Number of synapses peaks at 12 months
  24. Synaptic pruning
    certain unnecessary synapses soon begin to disappear'
  25. Five general principles of Brain Specialization
    • 1Specialization is early in development
    • 2Specialization takes two specific forms (areas become more focused, less diffuse: stimuli specific rather than general)
    • 3Different brain systems specialize at different rates
    • 4Environmental stimulation is necessary for successful specialization
    • 5Plasticity is a benefit of the immature brain’ s lack of specialization
  26. Plasticity:
    brain is very flexible, allowing recovery of function, especially in young children
  27. Experience-expectant growth
    All human brains require exposure to experiences common to all individuals (e.g., exposure to faces) to fine-tune their circuits and to have different regions specialize
  28. Experience-dependent growth
    Brain circuits and regions also are fine-tuned according to each person’s unique experiences (e.g., learning to play the violin vs. learning to play soccer)
  29. Locomotion
    • By 7 months, infants can sit alone
    • Toddling: at around 14 months, toddlers may stand alone briefly and walk without assistance
  30. Dynamic systems theory
    Instead of simple maturation, motor development involves many distinct skills that are organized and reorganized over time to meet specific task demands
  31. Posture and Balance
    • Infants are “top-heavy” and easily lose their balance
    • Within a few months, infants use inner ear and visual cues to adjust posture
    • Infants must relearn balance each time they achieve new postures
  32. Stepping
    • Many infants move their legs alternately in a stepping-like motion as early as 6-7 months
    • Infants use environmental cues to judge whether a surface is suited to walking (e.g., flat vs. bumpy)
  33. Differentiation:
    mastery of component skills
  34. Integration:
    combining components into the sequence needed to accomplish the task
  35. Unsupported, independent walking occurs at
    about 12 to 15 months, once children have mastered and coordinated its component skills
  36. Fine Motor Skills
    • Fine motor skills are associated with grasping, holding, and manipulating objects
    • At 4 months, infants clumsily reach for objects
    • By 5 months, they coordinate movement of the two hands
    • By 2-3 years, children can use zippers but not buttons
    • Tying shoes is a skill that develops around age 6 years
  37. Handedness
    • About 90% of children prefer to use their right hand
    • Most children grasp with their right hand by age 12 months, with a clear preference seen by preschool age
  38. Perception:
    brain processes receiving, selecting, modifying, and organizing sensory inputs
  39. Odors infancy
    they distinguish pleasant from unpleasant, or familiar from unfamiliar (e.g., mother’s breast or perfume)
  40. Taste infancy
    they differentiate among salty, sour, bitter, sweet, and changes in mother’s breast milk
  41. children recognize own name by
    4 months
  42. Visual acuity
    (clarity of vision) is the smallest pattern that can be distinguished dependably
  43. Infants at 1 month see at 20 feet what adults see at
    • 200-400 feet
    • By 1 year, infants’ visual acuity is the same as adults
  44. Cones:
    sets of neurons located along the retina at the back of the eye, each specialized to one of the three light wavelengths
  45. infants perceive colors similarly to adults at:
    3- to 4-months
  46. Visual cliff at 6 weeks
    6-week-olds react with interest to differences in depth (heart rate deceleration)
  47. Visual Cliff at 7 months
    • By 7 months, they show more fear than interest to the cliff’ s deep end (heart rate acceleration and refusal to cross the deep side)
    • Fear of depth seems to develop around the time babies can crawl
  48. Kinetic cues
    • closer objects appear larger while moving
    • begin using at few weeks old
  49. expansion
    • closer objects fill more of the retina
    • begin using at few weeks old
  50. Motion parallax
    • closer objects move faster
    • begin using at few weeks old
  51. Retinal disparity
    • closer objects yield greater disparity between eyes
    • begin using 4-6 months
  52. Sound
    • closer objects sound louder
    • begin using in infancy
  53. Linear perspective
    • closer objects have wider parallel lines
    • begin using at 7 months
  54. texture gradient
    • closer objects are coarser and distinctly textured
    • begin using at 7 months
  55. By 4 months, infants use several cues to discern that a stimulus is an object
    • elements that move together
    • similar colors and textures
    • aligned edges
  56. Perceiving Faces
    • Newborns prefer to look at moving faces, suggesting an innate attraction to them
    • By 4 weeks, infants track all moving stimuli, including faces and nonfaces
    • Before 6 months, infants have a prototype of a face that includes both human and nonhuman faces
    • Between 6 to 12 months, the prototype is fine-tuned to reflect familiar faces, which they prefer viewing
    • By 7 to 8 months, infants process faces similarly to adults, as a unique arrangement of features
  57. Intersensory redundancy:
    • simultaneously available multimodal sensory information (e.g., sight, sound, touch)
    • Infants perceive best when sensory information is redundant
  58. Mirror test: red smudge on nose
    • 9-month-old infants smile at the image in the mirror but do not seem to recognize it as themselves
    • By 15-24 months, infants see the image in the mirror and touch their own nose, suggesting they know the image is theirs
  59. Toddlers self awareness:
    • look more at photographs of themselves than other children
    • refer to themselves by name and use personal pronouns “ I ” or “ me ”
    • self’s continuity over time
    • “mine” in reference to possessions
  60. Preschoolers describe the self in terms of
    possessions, physical characteristics, preferences, and competencies
  61. Theory of mind:
    naïve understanding of the relationship between mind and behavior
  62. theory of mind Phase 1:
    • by 2 years, aware of desires; speak of wants and likes
    • Understand that people have desires and that desires cause behavior (e.g., “Ew peas; I not eat.”)
  63. theory of mind Phase 2:
    • by 3 years, distinguish the mental from physical world
    • Use mental verbs (“think”, “believe”, “forget”), but still emphasize desires as main causes of behavior
  64. theory of mind Phase 3:
    by 4 years, know that behavior can be based on beliefs about events, even if belief is false

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