Microbiology Lecture - 2 : Procaryotic Cell Structure and Function
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Name the 3 Organisms in the 3 Domain system ? then name whether there cell type is ?
- Archaea - Prokaryote
- Bacteria - Prokaryote
- Eukarya - Eukaryote
Name the 6 Organisms in the 6 Domain system ? then name whether there cell type is ?
Archaeobacteria - Prokaryote
Name the 5 Organisms in the 5 Domain system ? then name whether there cell type is ?
Monera or Prokaryotae -Prokaryote
Describe these Cocci based on arrangemnt ?
- diplococcus - 2 cocci
- streptococcus- chain cocci
- tetrads- 4 cocci
- sarcinae - layered cube of cocci
staphylococcus - irregular set of cocci (grapelike)
Describe these Rods based on arrangemnt ?
- Bacillus - Rod shaped
- Diplobacillus - 2 Rods
- streptobacillus - chain rods
- coccobacillus- round like rods
- Vibrio - curved (comma) shaped rods
- fusiform - straight rods with tapered ends
- spirillum- Rigid spiral or corkscrew
- spirochete -flexible spiral or corksrew
- helical - S-shaped Rod
- mycelial - Tube like hyphal tubes
- Filamentous -Long thin chains
Describe these special arrangements ?
- Flagellated cell - has flagella
- Palisade bacilli - bacilli standing long together
- Radial shaped - star shaped Archaea
- Square - Square shaped Archaea
1.Do prokaryotes have a complex cell organization ?
2.Do they have membrane bound organelles?
3.Do they have a simple genetic arrangement ?
4.Do they have cell walls made of Murien/Peptidoglycan ?
5.Do they all have an outer membrane ?
6. Are the following components of the cell wall ?Lipoproteins, glycoproteins, polysaccharides, and proteins
6.No , lipoproteins are absent
Explain what the following component of a prokaryotic cell is ?
Bactrial Chromosome /DNA
Glycocalyx - a coating or layer external to the cell wall , it has protective , receptive , and adhesive funtions
Pilus- a hollow appendage used for transfering DNA and cell adhesion
Bactrial Chromosome/nucleoid - A single cicular chromosome used for directing the genetics and heredity of the cell
Mesosome- an extension of the cell wall that folds in to increases surface area
- Flagellum- used for motility
- Fimbriae- hair like extensions that are used for adhesion.
Inclusion/Granule -stored nutrients is covered by a crystal like structure
Cell Wall - a semirigid casing
Cell membrane-a thin sheet of lipid and protein that control flow of cytoplasm
Ribosomes - site for protein synthesis
What is the polysaccharides most common form ?
What is a capsule ?
What is the slime layer ?
Used to describe the glycocalyx when it is pressed firmly against the cell wall.
It is the glycocalyx when is is loosely attached to the cell wall
What is the glycocalyx used for ?
- Aids in mobility
- Attachment to other objects
Helps to evade host defenses (Macrophages)
Protects against desiccation
Protects against bacteriophages viruses)
Prevents detergents from entering the cell
Is the S-Layer in all prokaryotes ?
Is the S-Layer external or internal to the cell wall ?
What layer is the S-layer associated with in Gram (+) and Gram (-) Bacteria?
- Gram + = the murein/peptidoglycan layer
- Gram - = the outer membrane
What else is the S-Layer called? What is the S-Layer composed of? How many dimensions does it possess?
- The regular surface layer
- Has a crystalline appearance and is composed of protein or glycoproteins
- Two-dimensional array
Does the S-Layer act as a sieve for low weight molecules, allowing them to enter the cell ?
Which of the following does the S-layer protect the cell from ?
•Changes in ion and pH fluctuations
•Predation (e.g. Bdellovibrio)
All of them
Describe these Flagella arrangements ?
- Atrichous - No flagella
- Monotrichous - single flagella
- Amphitrchous - single at each end
Lophotrichous- two or more flagella at one end or both
Peritrichious- all over
What is Chemotaxis , Phototaxis ,Aerotaxis, Osmotaxis,and Energytaxis ?
- –movement towards (positive) or away from (negative) chemical stimuli along a
- concentration gradient
- towards (positive) or away from (negative) light
- towards (positive) or away from (negative) oxygen
- towards (positive) or away from (negative) conditions of high ionic strength
Regarding the cell wall are the following T or F ?
1.prevent bacterial cells from rupturing when the osmotic pressure?
2.maintain the shape?
3.anchorage point for flagella and fimbriae/pili
4.contributes to pathogenicity
Does the cell wall protect against osmotic pressure ?
Does Gram + or Gram - bacteria have a thick peptidoglycan layer ?
Which one has peptide interbridges ?
Which one contains teichoic and lipoteichoic acids ?
Does Gram + or Gram - have LPS: which
consists of lipid A , a polysaccharide core, and a O-specific polysaccharide side chain ?
Which one has a periplasm/periplasmic space: located between the plasma membrane and the outer membrane ?
Does the Deinococcal have gram-positive or gram negative structures ?
What does it consist of ?
Is the outer membrane the same as the Bacterial negative ?
What does the gram stain look like ?
It has a combination of both
A thick murein layer and outer membrane
Does the Planctomyces have a murein/peptidoglycan layer ?
what is the cell wall composed of ?
What is the gram stain of the planctomyces?
Which bacteria tend to have an ACID-FAST CELL WALL ?
What is the cell wall and outermembrane made of ?
Do acid fast bacteria have porins ?
Mycobacterium and Nocardia
murein/peptidoglycan and mycolic acid -a glycolipid
Is murein/peptidoglycan susceptible to antibiotics ?
Does the Archaea cell wall have a rigid layer ?
Does it possess murein ?
What is the cell wall composed of ?
Is it true that some Archaea bacteria have an S-layer that acts as the cell wall?
polysaccharide, protein or glycoprotein
What does it mean when a Gram + Archaea stain Gram + ?
It has a thick murein like layer that is not made of murein. There is a substitute for the NAM layer.
Archaea that stain Gram (–) are similiar to planctomyces ,how ?
have a protein layer
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