Microbiology Lecture - 2 : Procaryotic Cell Structure and Function

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Microbiology Lecture - 2 : Procaryotic Cell Structure and Function
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2013-10-07 00:44:41
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  1. Name the 3 Organisms in the 3 Domain system ? then name whether there cell type is ?
    • Archaea - Prokaryote 
    • Bacteria - Prokaryote
    • Eukarya - Eukaryote
  2. Name the 6 Organisms in the 6 Domain system ? then name whether there cell type is ?
    Archaeobacteria - Prokaryote

    Eubacteria- Prokaryote

    Protista-Eukaryotes

    Fungi -Eukaryotes

    Plantae -Eukaryotes

    Animalia -Eukaryotes
  3. Name the 5 Organisms in the 5 Domain system ? then name whether there cell type is ?
    Monera or Prokaryotae -Prokaryote

    Protista -Prokaryote

    Fungi -Eukaroyte

    Plantae -Eukaryote

    Animalia-Eukaryote
  4. Describe these Cocci based on arrangemnt ?

    diplococcus
    streptococcus
    tetrads
    sarcinae
    staphylococcus
    • diplococcus - 2 cocci
    • streptococcus- chain cocci
    • tetrads- 4 cocci
    • sarcinae - layered cube of cocci

    staphylococcus - irregular set of cocci (grapelike)
  5. Describe these Rods based on arrangemnt ?

    Bacillus 
    Diplobacillus
    streptobacillus
    coccobacillus
    Vibrio
    fusiform
    spirillum 
    spirochete
    helical
    mycelial 
    Filamentous
    • Bacillus - Rod shaped
    • Diplobacillus - 2 Rods
    • streptobacillus - chain rods
    • coccobacillus- round like rods
    • Vibrio - curved (comma) shaped rods
    • fusiform - straight rods with tapered ends
    • spirillum- Rigid spiral or corkscrew
    • spirochete -flexible spiral or corksrew
    • helical - S-shaped Rod
    • mycelial - Tube like hyphal tubes
    • Filamentous -Long thin chains
  6. Describe these special arrangements ?

    Flagellated cell 
    Palisade bacilli
    Radial shaped
    Square
    • Flagellated cell - has flagella
    • Palisade bacilli - bacilli standing long together
    • Radial shaped - star shaped Archaea
    • Square - Square shaped Archaea
  7. 1.Do prokaryotes have a complex cell organization ?

    2.Do they have membrane bound organelles?

    3.Do they have a simple genetic arrangement ?

    4.Do they have cell walls made of Murien/Peptidoglycan ?

    5.Do they all have an outer membrane ?


    6. Are the following components of the cell wall ?Lipoproteins, glycoproteins, polysaccharides, and proteins
    1.No

    2.No

    3.Yes

    4.Yes 

    5.No

    6.No , lipoproteins are absent
  8. Explain what the following component of a prokaryotic cell is ?

    Glycocalyx
    Pilus
    Bactrial Chromosome /DNA
    Mesosome
    Flagellum
    Fimbriae
    Inclusion/Granule
    Cell Wall
    Cell membrane
    Ribosomes
    Glycocalyx - a coating or layer external to the cell wall , it has protective , receptive , and adhesive funtions

    Pilus- a hollow appendage used for transfering DNA and cell adhesion

    Bactrial Chromosome/nucleoid - A single cicular chromosome used for directing the genetics and heredity of the cell

    Mesosome- an extension of the cell wall that folds in to increases surface area

    • Flagellum- used for motility
    • Fimbriae- hair like extensions that are used for adhesion.

    Inclusion/Granule -stored nutrients is covered by a crystal like structure

    Cell Wall - a semirigid casing

    Cell membrane-a thin sheet of lipid and protein that control flow of cytoplasm

    Ribosomes - site for protein synthesis
  9. What is the polysaccharides most common form ? 

    What is a capsule ?

    What is the slime layer ?
    Glycocalyx

    Used to describe the glycocalyx when it is pressed firmly against the cell wall.

    It is the glycocalyx when is is loosely attached to the cell wall
  10. What is the glycocalyx used for ?
    • Aids in mobility 
    •  
    • Attachment to other objects

    Helps to evade host defenses (Macrophages)

    Protects against desiccation

    Protects against bacteriophages  viruses)

    Prevents detergents from entering the cell
  11. Is the S-Layer in all prokaryotes ?
    Yes
  12. Is the S-Layer external or internal to the cell wall ?
    external
  13. What layer is the S-layer associated with in Gram (+) and Gram (-) Bacteria?
    • Gram + = the murein/peptidoglycan layer
    • Gram - = the outer membrane
  14. What else is the S-Layer called? What is the S-Layer composed of? How many dimensions does it possess?
    • The regular surface layer
    • Has a crystalline appearance and is composed of protein or glycoproteins
    • Two-dimensional array
  15. Does the S-Layer act as a sieve for low weight molecules, allowing them to enter the cell ?
    Yes
  16. Which of the following does the S-layer protect the cell from ?
    •Changes in ion and pH fluctuations
    •Osmotic pressure 
    •Enzymes 
    •Predation (e.g. Bdellovibrio)
    •Bacteriophage
    All of them
  17. Describe these Flagella arrangements ?

    Atrichous
    Monotrichous
    Amphitrichous
    Lophotrichous
    Peritrichious
    • Atrichous - No flagella
    • Monotrichous - single flagella
    • Amphitrchous - single at each end

    Lophotrichous- two or more flagella at one end or both

    Peritrichious- all over
  18. What is Chemotaxis , Phototaxis ,Aerotaxis, Osmotaxis,and Energytaxis ?
    • CHEMOTAXIS
    • –movement towards (positive) or away from (negative) chemical stimuli along a
    • concentration gradient

    • PHOTOTAXIS
    • –Movement
    • towards (positive) or away from (negative) light

    • •AEROTAXIS
    • –Movement
    • towards (positive) or away from (negative) oxygen

    • •OSMOTAXIS
    • –Movement
    • towards (positive) or away from (negative) conditions of high ionic strength
  19. Regarding the cell wall are the following T or F ?

    1.prevent bacterial cells from rupturing when the osmotic pressure? 

    2.maintain the shape? 

    3.anchorage point for flagella and fimbriae/pili

    4.contributes to pathogenicity
    • 1.T
    • 2.T
    • 3.T
    • 4.T
  20. Does the cell wall protect against osmotic pressure ?
    yes
  21. Does Gram + or Gram - bacteria have a thick peptidoglycan layer ?

    Which one has peptide interbridges ?

    Which one contains teichoic and lipoteichoic acids ?
    Gram +

    Gram +

    Gram +
  22. Does Gram + or Gram - have LPS: which
    consists of lipid A , a polysaccharide core, and a O-specific polysaccharide side chain ? 

    Which one has a periplasm/periplasmic space: located between the plasma membrane and the outer membrane ?
    Gram -

    Gram -
  23. Does the Deinococcal have gram-positive or gram negative structures ?

    What does it consist of ?

    Is the outer membrane the same as the Bacterial negative ?

    What does the gram stain look like ?
    It has a combination of both

    A thick murein layer and outer membrane

    No

    gram positive
  24. Does the Planctomyces have a murein/peptidoglycan layer ? 

    what is the cell wall composed of ?

    What is the gram stain of the planctomyces?
    No

    Protein only 

    gram negative
  25. Which bacteria tend to have an ACID-FAST CELL WALL ?

    What is the cell wall and outermembrane made of ?

    Do acid fast bacteria have porins ?
    Mycobacterium and Nocardia

    murein/peptidoglycan and mycolic acid -a glycolipid

    Yes
  26. Is murein/peptidoglycan susceptible to antibiotics ?
    Yes
  27. Does the Archaea cell wall have a rigid layer ?
     
    Does it possess murein ?

    What is the cell wall composed of ?
     
    Is it true that some Archaea bacteria have an S-layer that acts as the cell wall?
    Yes

    No

    polysaccharide, protein or glycoprotein

    True
  28. What does it mean when a Gram + Archaea stain Gram + ?
    It has a thick murein like layer that is not made of murein. There is a substitute for the NAM layer.
  29. Archaea that stain Gram (–) are similiar to planctomyces ,how ?
    have a protein layer

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