Anat. and phys. test 2

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phantomr254
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238876
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Anat. and phys. test 2
Updated:
2013-10-05 14:34:17
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anatomy test
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basic definitions, membranes, and levels found in most chapters 4 and 5 of anatomy books
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  1. Tissue
    A collection of specialized cells and cell products that preform a relatively limited number of functions
  2. Histology
    the study of tissues
  3. 4 main tissues
    Epithelial, connective, muscle, Neural
  4. Epithelial systems
    Epithelia and glands
  5. Epithelial functions
    1.Provide physical protection 2. control permeability 3.provide sensation 4.produce specialized secretions
  6. Epithelial characteristics
    1) Cellularity 2) Polarity 3) Attachment 4) A vascularity 5) regeneration
  7. Cell integrity is maintained in 3 ways
    1)Intercellular connections 2) Attachment to basal lamia 3) Epithelial maintenance
  8. 3 Broad classifications of Epithelial
    1) Squamous ( mouth/throat) 2) Cuboidal (Kidney and sweat) 3) Columnar (stomach and anus)
  9. 2 kinds of Glandular Epithelia
    1) Endocrine (hormones) 2. Exocrine (epithelial surface)
  10. 3 Modes of Secretion
    Merocrine, Apocrine, Holocrine
  11. Gland structure: simple
    1)Tubular 2)Coiled Tubular 3) Branched Tubular 4) Alveolar 5) Branched Alveolar
  12. 3 types of Gland structure; Compound/Complex
    1) Tubular 2) Alveolar 3) Tubuloaveolar
  13. 3 basic components of Connective Tissues
    1)specialized cells 2)Extracellular protein fibers 3)Fluid know as ground substances
  14. Connective tissue 4 key functions
    1) Establishes structural framework 2)Transporting fluid and dissolved materials 3) protection 4) support
  15. 3 types of connective tissue
    1) Connective tissue proper 2) Fluid connective tissue 3) supporting connective tissue
  16. Adipocytes
    fat cells
  17. Mesenchymal Cells
    Stem cells that are in connective tissue (respond to injury)
  18. Melanocytes
    Contains melanin
  19. Mast cells
    Contain histamine
  20. 3 Types of fibers
    1)Collagen (tendons and ligaments) 2) Reticula (stroma) 3) Elastic
  21. Membranes
    Cover and protect other structures, made of epithelial and connective tissues
  22. 4 Types of Membranes
    1)Mucus 2)serous 3)cutaneous 4)synovial
  23. Mucus membrane
    Line cavities that communicate with the exterior of the body
  24. Serous membrane
    Line sealed internal divisions of the body
  25. Cutaneous
    Covers the surface of the body
  26. 2 responses to injuries
    • 1) Inflammatory responses- Swelling, redness and pain  
    • 2) Regeneration- Isolation and repair
  27. Integumentary system: 2 components
    1) Cutaneous membrane 2) Accessory structures
  28. Cutaneous Membrane made up of
    Epidermis (superficial) Dermis (underlying) and Hypodermis (separates form organs)
  29. 6 key functions of Integument
    1) Protection 2) Excretion 3) Maintenance 4) Synthesis of vitamin D 5) detection 6) storage
  30. Cutaneous membrane: Epidermis
    Provides mechanical protection and prevents microorganisms from getting inside the body
  31. Epidermis consists of 5 layers
    • 1)stratum Germinatum
    • 2)stratum Sinosum
    • 3)stratum Granulosum  
    • 4)stratum Lucidum
    • 5)stratum Corneum
  32. Basal cell
    Germinave Cells (stem cells)
  33. Merkel cells
    only where there is no hair (sensitive to touch)
  34. Stratum spinosum
    • 8-10 layers
    • Contains Langerhans cells- parcipate in immune response
    • Stimulate defenses- against microorganisms, superficial skin cancers
  35. Keratinization
    Cells filled with keratin
  36. Skin color
    1) pigments 2) blood supply
  37. Carotene
    Pigment- Orange, yellow color (accumulates in epidermal cells)
  38. Melanin
    Pigment- Brown, yellow- Brown, black (proactive from UV radiation)
  39. Vitamin D3 (cholecalciferol)
    • 1)Skin produces vitamin D3 due to sunlight
    • 2)In the liver and Kidneys
    • 3)Converted into calcitrol
  40. Glands: Exocrine Glands
    1) Sebaceous 2) Sweat
  41. Holocrine
    Produce oil-lipids
  42. sebum
    secretion of lipids
  43. Sweat Glands 2 types
    1) Apocrine 2) Merocrine
  44. Merocrine functions (3)
    1) cooling 2) Excretion 3) Protection
  45. 4 steps of repair
    • 1) Bleeding and inflammation
    • 2) Scab formation
    • 3) Epidermal Cells fill in the space underneath the scab
    • 4) Scab is shed
  46. Aging steps 1-5
    • 1) Epidermis thins- Germinating cell activity declines
    • 2) Number of Langerhans cells decrease
    • 3) vitamin D production declines 75 %
    • 4) Melanocyte activity declines
    • 5) Glandular activity declines
  47. Aging steps 6-10
    • 6) Blood supply reduced
    • 7) hair follicles stop functioning
    • 8) Dermis Thins
    • 9) body fatt distribution stops
    • 10) skin repairs slow
  48. 3 types of secretion (may not need to know)
    1) Serous Glands 2) Mucus glands 3) Mixed Exocrine Glands

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