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complex and highly organized microbial communities consisting of layers of microbial cells associated with physical surfaces
process of biofilms
- individual cells populate the surface
- eps is produced and attached becomes irreversible
- biofilm architecture develops and matures
- single cells are released from biofilm
Aerobic organisms live top or bottom?
Top for oxygen
Example of biofilms
slime-encased aggregations of microbes
benefit of forming a biofilm?
- Increased protection from harmful agents (antibodies), antibiotics and uv radiation
- Increased access to nutrients and the removal of toxic waste
- Increased genetic diversity (dna from one organism may be taken up by another when dead)
Where do they grow
Syringes and other places
Biofilms can cause persistent infections, that can be fatal (on catheters or surgically implanted or on exposed skin of burn victims)
Cell to cell communication to determine their cell size.
Name of molecules in quorum sensing
- made only by Gram negative bacteria
- in ahl1
- ahl2 by both gram
- oligopeptides produced by gram positive
- A-factor (filamentous gram-positive bacteria Streptomyces griseus)
- Hydroxy-alkyl-quinoline (pseudomonas aeruginosa
- can only live inside host cells.
make asexual spores; limited to only a small number of spcies
produce sexual and asexual spores
- produce asexual spores
Bacterial spores are called...
- Develop inside vegetative bacterial cells
Endospores do what
help bacteria survive harsh conditions
gram p bacilli
division, doubling, generation
Growth under advers conditions
- Bacterial endospores
- fungal spores
- protozoan spores
- protozoan cysts
- parasitic worms
What are the four stages of cell growth in a closed environment
is lag phase occuring in binary fission
Exponential growth/log phase
geometrical increase in population size
stationary phase and death phase