a chemical substance that when taken into the body, alters the structure or functioning of the body in some way, excluding those nutrients considered to be related to normal functioning
what is instrumental drug usage?
referring to the motivation of a drug user who takes the drug fora specific purpose other than getting "high"
what are psychoactive drugs
drugs that affect feelings thoughts perceptions or behavior
what is drug dependence?
a condition in which an individual feels a compulsive need to continue taking a drug. in the process, the drug assumes an increasingly central role in the individuals life
what are recreational drugs?
referring to the motivation of a drug user who takes the drug only to get "high" or achieve some pleasurable effect
what is the leading reason given for drug usage?
to treat illness
what are the commonly accepted risk factors for substance abuse?
-Psychosocial-a tendency to nonconformit
-Early history of OH use- Drunk under 12
-Number of Adults you know that use
-School Absence-other than illness
-Low Educational Goals
what are the limitations on claims made by dietary supplements?
that they are not tested or proved by FDA therefore it is not certain that they will work and do what they will say
what does it mean to be classified as a schedule one drug?
high potential for abuse. no accepted medical use
what is a drug trigger?
implies are things that trigger a
response or increase a particular desire. We experience thousands of these
what is pharmacological violence?
violent acts committed while under the influence of a particular psychoactive drug, with the implication that the drug caused the violence to occur
be able to explain what ED means. why do we start at 50%?
ED= effective dose= the minimal does of a particular drug necessary to cause the desired affect in a given % of the population
example-ED50= the drugs does is effective for 50% of the population.
we start at 50% because that is the lowest if can be for the does to be effective
what are the 3 broad perspectives that experts view substance abuse from?
what is physical dependence?
a model of drug dependence based on the idea that the drug abuser continues the drug-taking behavior to avoid the consequences of physical withdrawal symptoms
what is the relationship between the effective curve and lethal curve? how does this relate to toxicity of a drug
the closer the curve are together the more toxic the drug is and the farther apart they are the less toxic they are
what is the DAWN reporting system? what information does it collect?
a U.S. government program that gathers data concerning drug-related medical emergencies in major metropolitan hospitals
- collects the number of times an individual visits an emergency department for any reason that is connected to recent drug use
-information concerning the number of drug-related deaths as determined by a coroner or medical examiner
what are the 4 principal routes of drug administration?
what are the advantages of oral medications
easiest and safest due to protective factors
what are the advantages and disadvantages of injectable drugs?
advantage-fast, taken in lower doses
disadvantage-can cause tissue damage
what does the parasympathetic nervous system do?
connects and supplies data to CNS this includes visual, auditory and sensory
what part of your brain contains the seat of reasoning
what is drug tolerance?
the capacity of a drug to produce a gradually diminished physical or psychological effect upon repeated administrations of the drug at the same does level
what part of the brain contains the life support system
it is the role of the _____ to receives and transits information?
neurotransmitters must carry information across the synaptic junction. if there is no match then there is no communication. there are six major transmitting drugs in the body. what are they?
what is synergy?
the interaction or cooperation of two or more organizations, substances, or other agents to produce a combined effect greater than the sum of their separate effects
what does cocaine come from?
small leave of a coca shrub
the effects of cocaine are dependent on 3 general criteria. what are they?
1) Way the drug is taken into the body
3) User’s expectations
what is the most commonly reported experience among cocaine users?
A sudden and powerful burst of
Many also report feelings of euphoria.
Still others…experience strong panic
what happens to your mood as the cocaine level in your blood drops?
Users become depressed, irritable,
what makes free basing dangerous?
}The technique for producing free-based
cocaine is extremely hazardous. It involves high heat and flammable chemicals.
It can explode or catch fire very easily.
People have been know to catch fire while freebasing
in order to be injected what must happen to the coca leaf?
-To extract the drug coca leaves are
soaked in several different chemicals.
-The leaves are then crushed and washed in
an alcohol bath.
-The material is then treated with
kerosene. This yields a substance of cocaine which is about 60% pure.
-The last step in the transformation is to
treat it with and “Oxidizing
Agent” This results in a 99% pure product in the form of a crystalline powder (cocaine
what are the signs and symptoms of cocaine abuse
-Increased heart Rate
-Sneezing and redness around the nose
-Decreased Appetite-massive weight loss
should one go cold turkey in quitting cocaine?
which hand is stronger and last longer with regards to amphetamines?
-The RIGHT Handed Version is more powerful
-This more powerful version is often
referred to as d-amphetamine
-D-amphetamine is more potent-also called
what does coffee come from?
Coffee comes from a plant-Coffea
how important was the information coming from coffee houses thought to be
It was consumed in “Coffee Houses”
where the intellectuals of the time met and discussed important issue
what family of stimulants does caffeine belong to?
the Xanthine family
how much caffeine is there in an average cup of coffee?
how does most of the caffeine get into pop?
Most of the caffeine is added as part of the manufacturing process
how much pop does the average american drink?
about 2-3 8 ounce servings per day
does chocolate have about as much caffeine as tea?
-The amount of xanthines (caffeine and theobromine) is less in chocolate than that found in coffee and tea.
-Nevertheless it is still there.
-One ounce of chocolate contains about..
-6mg of caffeine and 44mg of theobromine
does coffee help to sober drunks up?
how does coffee affect neurotransmitters?
-Caffeine affects the body by blocking
adenosine…an inhibitory neurotransmitter.
-Normally adenosine binds to receptors and
produces sleep, dilation of blood vessels and constricts bronchial
-It also protects against seizures and
slows down the body’s
reaction to stress
-It also lowers heart rate, blood pressure
and body temperature.
-By inhibiting adenosine you get the
what is the relationship between high amount of caffeine and osteoporosis?
Osteoporosis and Bone Fractures- association in those consuming more than 2-3 cups per day of coffee/6-7 of tea. Higher rate of hip fractures in the elderly who have consumed high rates for many years.
what does OTC mean?
over the counter drugs= medicinal drugs available to the public without the requirement of a prescription. they are often referred to as nonprescription drugs
who decides if the drug will be sold by prescription or over the counter?
It is also the FDA that determines if the drug will be obtainable by scrip or over-the-counter.
what kind of review process do nutritional supplements go through?
they do not go through a review process
what can supplements claim? what can they not claim?
-claimed benefits from using the product can only relate helping common physical conditions associated the ageing process
-cannot claim that they can cure or prevent diseases
what occurs in stage one of a clinical trail?
the experimental drugs is given to health volunteers to look at potential side effects and to determine patterns of absorption and elimination
aspirin is considered a very safe drug because it causes no stomach bleeding?
false. aspirin has a higher risk of developing gastric bleeding because the drug has a direst erosive effect on the stomach wall
what did the safe food and drug act of 1906 require
ensured that all foods and drugs in the US would be inspected for purity and consistency
what do narcotics do better than anything else?
what or who was morphine named after?
Greek God of Dreams-Morpheus
what did the Harrison Act of 1915 require?
The initial Harrison Act did not outlaw narcotics but it did require physicians to register with the internal revenue service and pay a tax for the right to supply these drugs to their patients
what was operation Golden Flow?
Golden Flow was a drug testing of all Soldiers returning home. If you failed you stayed in Vietnam for treatment
know what the criteria are as to how heroin will affect the user
1) Sudden release of histamines-causes
intense itching and red eyes
2) Papillary constriction-eyes go to
3) Reduction in breathing rate
4) Blood Pressure is reduced-at higher
5) Slowing of GI tract. Constipation-big
what is a Narcon? what does it do for substance users?
-Narcon is what we call a opiate antagonist
-We give Narcon to counteract the effects of narcotic overdosing. It is often called a miracle drug by health professionals
what did Albert Hoffman discover or make?
the type of vision they produce is how we classify most hallucinogens?
if you stimulate S2 receptors in the brain what will happen?
These S2 receptors become active in the presence of hallucinogens. The more excited or active this center of the brain becomes the more profound and real the experience.