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1. carry with both hands
3. move stage down
4. position lowest power lens
5. move condenser up
6. open iris & move blue filter away
7. secure slide
8. move stage up
9. focus (big knob, coarse; small knob, fine)
the enlargement of an optical image
what is magnification?
the ability to distinguish parts, improved by magnification
What is resolution?
distance from the lens to the slide (its a range)
What is working distance?
diameter of field gets smaller, depth of field gets less and less.
As you magnify, what happens to the diameter of field? what about the working distance?
distance from the lens in focus (this must be within the working distance to work properly)
What is depth of field?
it uses a series of lens (ocular lens and objective lens)
what is a compound microscope?
multiply ocular lens and objective lens
to calculate what magnification you have....
-closely packed cells
-on a bed of connective tissue
-has a basement membrane
-two types: simple & stratified
- EPITHELIAL TISSUE
epithelial tissue always sits on what type of tissue?
- EPITHELIAL TISSUE
- what are the three main cell shapes?
lines cardiovascular system
alveoli (little cavity in lungs
Where are simple squamous located?
lines kidney tubules
where are simple cuboidal located?
lines digestive tract
where is simple columnar located?
lines the (upper) respiratory tract
Where is pseudostratified located?
lines body surface, oral cavity, esphagus, vagina
*top layer of flat cells (squamous on top) rounder cells below it
stratified squamous are located?
lines the urinary tract
ureter, urinary bladder, it's able to stretch
*top layer is not flat, has rounded cells on surface
Where is stratified transitional located?
eg thyroid, the adrenal gland (located atop the kidneys and responsible for the secretion of certain hormones such as adrenaline, cortisol)
What type of gland has a NO duct?
eg. the sweat glands, salivary glands, mammary glands, pancreas and liver.
What type of gland has a duct?
tubular- tuble like
alveolar- sac like
2 types of exocrine glands- described by shape
they function is to secrete mucin, which dissolves in water to form mucus
What type of cell makes mucus?
has vascular matrix which determines it's properties
areolar and adipose
name two types of Loose Connective Tissue
areolar tissue (loose connective)
areolar (loose connective)
hypodermis aka subcutaneous
areolar is found where?
Fibroblasts (make matrix)
Adipose (store fat)
Mast (store histamine- which is released with tissue damage)
Macrophage (eats/fights bacteria)
what type of cells are in areolar?
hyalurinic acid (gooey)
what is in matrix of areolar?
bendable rope-like protein (no stretch)
reticulin is THIN version of collagen
what is collagen? reticulin?
cell type - adipose
matrix- reticulin fibers
where is adipose located? what makes up its cells and matrix?
White fibrous - regular
white fibrous- irregular
Dense connective tissue- names the types
white fibrous- regular (dense connective tissue)
white fibrous- regular (dense conncective tissue)
tendons and ligaments
white fibrous REGULAR is located? (dense connective tissue)
what makes up white REGULAR tissue? (dense connective tissue)
Where is IRREGULAR white fibrous located? (dense connective tissue)
IRREGULAR tissue is made of....
yellow elastic tissue is located....
yellow elastic tissue is made of....
hyaline (main type)
Name the 3 types of cartilage tissue
costal (rib connecting to sternum)
Where is hyaline cartilage located?
cells- chondrocytes, in lacunae (an unfilled space)
matrix- Chondoitin sulfate (a tough polysaccharide) and Collagen
what is the make up of hyaline? (cells & matrix)
Where is elastic cartilage located?
cells- chondrocytes, In lacunae
Matrix- Chondroitin sulfate, Collagen, Elastin
what is elastic cartilage made of?
Where is fibrocartilage located?
cells- Chondrocytes, In lacunae
matrix- chondroitin sulfate, Collagen, Collagen (extra dose)
what is fibrocartilage made of?
avascular, thus it takes long time to heal
Is cartilage avascular or vascular?
Name two types of bone tissue
the bone "surface"
Where is compact bone located?
osteocytes in lacunae
What cells are in compact bone?
Hydroxyapatite (calcium phosphate)
- makes it rigid
- makes it not brittle
- the circles
What is the matrix of compact bone made of?
What is the mineral in bone???
The osteon or Haversian system is the fundamental functional unit of compact bone.
Each osteon consists of concentric layers, or lamellae, of compact bone tissue that surround a central canal, the Haversian canal. The Haversian canal contains the bone's nerve and blood supplies.
What is the haversian systems?
in bone "framework"
Where are spongy bone located?
matrix- Hydroxyapatite (calcium phosphate)
NO HAVERSIAN systems!
Spongy bone consists of...
What is the diaphysis on a bone?
what is the epiphysis of a bone?
the inner sheath
what is the endosteum of a bone
around the sheath
what is the periosteum of a bone?
what is the articular cartilage of a bone
the formation of bones
-begins in week 8 of embryonic life
-connective tissue replaced by bone (two types: endochondral and intramembranous)
AKA it is the process of laying down new bone material by cells called osteoblasts
what is the definition of ossification?
Does start with cartilage
Endochondral ossification does or does not start with cartilage?
essential process during the rudimentary formation of long bones, the growth of the length of long bones, and the natural healing of bone fractures
Describe function of Endochondral ossification
NO it does not.
Intramembranous ossification is the direct laying down of bone into the primitive connective tissue (mesenchyme).
Does Intramembranous ossification start with cartilage?
essential process during the natural healing of bone fractures and the rudimentary formation of bones of the head
Describe function of Intramembranous ossification
mucous membranes are found where ever body opens up- such as lining the digestive-mouth, respiratory-nasal, esophagus lining, reproductive, and urinary tracts.
It has mucus secreting cells in it (often called goblet cells) and is an effective and important defense barrier.
Serous membranes are found sealed in cavity (eg heart, lung) They ooze their materials to an interior surface secreting a lubricating fluid thus reducing friction during muscle movement, such as in the chest cavity- visceral pericardium.
what is the difference between mucous and serous membranes?
epithelial and connective.
nerve and muscle tissue can NOT reproduce/replace themselves
- What type of cells can reproduce and replace themselves?
- a. epithelial
- b. connective
- c. nerve
- d. muscle
voluntary (has peripheral nuclei)
cardiac has central nucleus
found in walls of hollow organs: stomach, lrg intestine, uterus, urinary bladder
Where is smooth muscle primarily located?
has two layers: epidermis & dermis (hypodermis is NOT part of skin). Color comes from melanin, hemoglobin & carotene
fluid barrier (waterproof)
infection barrier (germproof)
protection (from abrasion, chemical, UV)
thermo-regulation (blood flow, sweat)
assess environment- touch, temp, pain
What is skin? and it's function?
top of skin to the base
corneum* has dead keratinized squamous cell, it is waterproof and resists abrasions
*top layer is dead cells, bottom is alive*
- What are layers of the epidermis?
- [consists of stratified squamous epithelium]
- Cell types in epidermis: keratinocytes & melanocytes---> which produce melanin!! aka UV protection, ALSO merkel & landerhans cells
papillary layer & reticular layer
Two regions of Dermis layer?
cells: fibroblasts, macrophages & adipose
fibers: COLLAGEN, elastin, & reticular fibers
what is the Dermis made of?
palms of hands & soles of feet
What are the two places on the human body where one can't find hair?
dead kerantinized cells (keratin the protein)
What is hair primarily made of?
pulls hair down to more erect position, pulls skin down, gives appearence of goose pits aka goose bumps
What is the name of the smooth muscle that connect hair follicle to papillary layer of dermis?
1. Sweat (two types eccrine and apocrine)
Name two types of glands
HYPOTONIC. what is the ph? 4-6. This means sweat is NOT salty. Our skin is salty
palms, soles, forehead
Are eccrine sweat glands are hypo or hyper tonic?
Where are they located?
in dermis but released into hair follicles, active at puberty, have extra bacteria
primarily in axillary & genital
Apocrine sweat glands are located where?
always attached to the hair follicle
found all over the skin (except palms, soles)
Product is.... sebum (a natural oil)
Where is sebaceous gland located? aka oil glands