Lab Exam 1

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surprise
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238890
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Lab Exam 1
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2013-10-15 22:23:00
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tissues
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tissues
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  1. 1. carry with both hands
    2. power
    3. move stage down
    4. position lowest power lens
    5. move condenser up
    6. open iris & move blue filter away
    7. secure slide
    8. move stage up
    9. focus (big knob, coarse; small knob, fine)
    Microscope procedures
  2. the enlargement of an optical image
    what is magnification?
  3. the ability to distinguish parts, improved by magnification
    What is resolution?
  4. distance from the lens to the slide (its a range)
    What is working distance?
  5. diameter of field gets smaller, depth of field gets less and less.
    As you magnify, what happens to the diameter of field?  what about the working distance?
  6. distance from the lens in focus (this must be within the working distance to work properly)
    What is depth of field?
  7. it uses a series of lens (ocular lens and objective lens)
    what is a compound microscope?
  8. multiply ocular lens and objective lens
    to calculate what magnification you have....
  9. -closely packed cells
    -on a bed of connective tissue
    -has a basement membrane
    -avascular
    -two types: simple & stratified
    • EPITHELIAL TISSUE
    • structure?
  10. connective!
    epithelial tissue always sits on what type of tissue?
  11. squamous
    cuboidal
    columnar
    • EPITHELIAL TISSUE
    • what are the three main cell shapes?
  12. Simple Squamous
    • Identify:
  13. Simple squamous
  14. lines cardiovascular system
    alveoli (little cavity in lungs
    Where are simple squamous located?
  15. simple cuboidal
  16. simple cuboidal
  17. lines kidney tubules
    where are simple cuboidal located?
  18. simple columnar
  19. simple columnar
  20. lines digestive tract
    where is simple columnar located?
  21. pseudostratified
  22. pseudostratified
  23. pseudostratified
  24. pseudostratified
  25. lines the (upper) respiratory tract
    Where is pseudostratified located?
  26. stratified squamous
  27. stratified squamous
  28. lines body surface, oral cavity, esphagus, vagina

    *top layer of flat cells (squamous on top) rounder cells below it
    stratified squamous are located?
  29. stratified Transitional
  30. stratified transitional
  31. lines the urinary tract
    ureter, urinary bladder, it's able to stretch

    *top layer is not flat, has rounded cells on surface
    Where is stratified transitional located?
  32. endocrine
    eg thyroid, the adrenal gland (located atop the kidneys and responsible for the secretion of certain hormones such as adrenaline, cortisol)
    What type of gland has a NO duct?
  33. Exocrine
    eg. the sweat glands, salivary glands, mammary glands, pancreas and liver.
    What type of gland has a duct?
  34. tubular- tuble like
    alveolar- sac like
    2 types of exocrine glands- described by shape
  35. Goblet cells
    they function is to secrete mucin, which dissolves in water to form mucus
    What type of cell makes mucus?
  36. scattered cells
    has vascular matrix which determines it's properties
    connective tissue
  37. areolar and adipose
    name two types of Loose Connective Tissue
  38. areolar tissue (loose connective)
  39. areolar (loose connective)
  40. hypodermis aka subcutaneous
    areolar is found where?
  41. Fibroblasts (make matrix)
    Adipose (store fat)
    Mast (store histamine- which is released with tissue damage)
    Macrophage (eats/fights bacteria)
    what type of cells are in areolar?
  42. hyalurinic acid (gooey)
    collagen
    elastin
    reticulin
    what is in matrix of areolar?
  43. bendable rope-like protein (no stretch)
    reticulin is THIN version of collagen
    what is collagen? reticulin?
  44. adipose
  45. hypodermis
    cell type - adipose
    matrix- reticulin fibers
    where is adipose located? what makes up its cells and matrix?
  46. White fibrous - regular
    white fibrous- irregular
    yellow elastic
    Dense connective tissue- names the types
  47. white fibrous- regular (dense connective tissue)
  48. white fibrous- regular (dense conncective tissue)
  49. tendons and ligaments
    white fibrous REGULAR is located? (dense connective tissue)
  50. cell- fibroblasts
    matrix- collagen
    what makes up white REGULAR tissue? (dense connective tissue)
  51. dermis
    capsules
    Where is IRREGULAR white fibrous located? (dense connective tissue)
  52. cells- fibroblasts
    matrix- collagen
    IRREGULAR tissue is made of....
  53. artery walls
    yellow elastic tissue is located....
  54. cells-fibroblasts
    matrix-elastin
    yellow elastic tissue is made of....
  55. hyaline (main type)
    elastic
    fibro
    Name the 3 types of cartilage tissue
  56. Hyaline cartilage
  57. airway
    costal (rib connecting to sternum)
    skeletal
    Where is hyaline cartilage located?
  58. cells- chondrocytes, in lacunae (an unfilled space)
    matrix- Chondoitin sulfate (a tough polysaccharide) and Collagen
    what is the make up of hyaline? (cells & matrix)
  59. external ear
    epiglottis
    Where is elastic cartilage located?
  60. cells- chondrocytes, In lacunae
    Matrix- Chondroitin sulfate, Collagen, Elastin
    what is elastic cartilage made of?
  61. intervertebral disks
    Where is fibrocartilage located?
  62. cells- Chondrocytes, In lacunae
    matrix- chondroitin sulfate, Collagen, Collagen (extra dose)
    what is fibrocartilage made of?
  63. avascular, thus it takes long time to heal
    Is cartilage avascular or vascular?
  64. compact
    spongy
    Name two types of bone tissue
  65. compact bone
  66. the bone "surface"
    Where is compact bone located?
  67. osteocytes in lacunae
    What cells are in compact bone?
  68. Hydroxyapatite (calcium phosphate)
         - makes it rigid
    Collagen 
         - makes it not brittle
    Haversian systems
        - the circles
    What is the matrix of compact bone made of?
  69. calcium phosphate
    What is the mineral in bone???
  70. The osteon or Haversian system is the fundamental functional unit of compact bone.

    Each osteon consists of concentric layers, or lamellae, of compact bone tissue that surround a central canal, the Haversian canal. The Haversian canal contains the bone's nerve and blood supplies.
    What is the haversian systems?
  71. in bone "framework"
    Where are spongy bone located?
  72. cells- osteocytes
    matrix- Hydroxyapatite (calcium phosphate)
    collagen
    NO HAVERSIAN systems!
    Spongy bone consists of...
  73. the shaft
    What is the diaphysis on a bone?
  74. the ends
    what is the epiphysis of a bone?
  75. the inner sheath
    what is the endosteum of a bone
  76. around the sheath
    what is the periosteum of a bone?
  77. the "joint"
    what is the articular cartilage of a bone
  78. the formation of bones
    -begins in week 8 of embryonic life
    -connective tissue replaced by bone (two types: endochondral and intramembranous)

    AKA it is the process of laying down new bone material by cells called osteoblasts
    what is the definition of ossification?
  79. Does start with cartilage
    Endochondral ossification does or does not start with cartilage?
  80. essential process during the rudimentary formation of long bones, the growth of the length of long bones, and the natural healing of bone fractures
    Describe function of Endochondral ossification
  81. NO it does not.
    Intramembranous ossification is the direct laying down of bone into the primitive connective tissue (mesenchyme).
    Does Intramembranous ossification start with cartilage?
  82. essential process during the natural healing of bone fractures and the rudimentary formation of bones of the head
    Describe function of Intramembranous ossification
  83. mucous membranes are found where ever body opens up- such as lining the digestive-mouth, respiratory-nasal, esophagus lining, reproductive, and urinary tracts.
    It has mucus secreting cells in it (often called goblet cells) and is an effective and important defense barrier.

    Serous membranes are found sealed in cavity (eg heart, lung) They ooze their materials to an interior surface secreting a lubricating fluid thus reducing friction during muscle movement, such as in the chest cavity- visceral pericardium.
    what is the difference between mucous and serous membranes?
  84. epithelial and connective.

    nerve and muscle tissue can NOT reproduce/replace themselves
    • What type of cells can reproduce and replace themselves?
    • a. epithelial
    • b. connective
    • c. nerve
    • d. muscle
  85. skeletal muscle
  86. skeletal muscle
    voluntary (has peripheral nuclei)
  87. cardiac
  88. cardiac has central nucleus
  89. smooth muscle
    non-voluntary
  90. found in walls of hollow organs: stomach, lrg intestine, uterus, urinary bladder
    Where is smooth muscle primarily located?
  91. neuron
  92. has two layers: epidermis & dermis (hypodermis is NOT part of skin).  Color comes from melanin, hemoglobin & carotene
    FUNCTIONS:
    fluid barrier (waterproof)
    infection barrier (germproof)
    protection (from abrasion, chemical, UV)
    thermo-regulation (blood flow, sweat)
    assess environment- touch, temp, pain
    What is skin?  and it's function?
  93. top of skin to the base
    corneum* has dead keratinized squamous cell, it is waterproof and resists abrasions
    lucidum
    granulosum
    spinosum
    basal

    *top layer is dead cells, bottom is alive*
    • What are layers of the epidermis?  
    • [consists of stratified squamous epithelium] 

    • FYI:
    • Cell types in epidermis: keratinocytes & melanocytes---> which produce melanin!! aka UV protection, ALSO merkel & landerhans cells
  94. identify parts of skin
  95. papillary layer & reticular layer
    Two regions of Dermis layer?
  96. cells: fibroblasts, macrophages & adipose
    fibers: COLLAGEN, elastin, & reticular fibers
    what is the Dermis made of?
  97. palms of hands & soles of feet
    What are the two places on the human body where one can't find hair?
  98. dead kerantinized cells (keratin the protein)
    What is hair primarily made of?
  99. Arrector Pili
    pulls hair down to more erect position, pulls skin down, gives appearence of goose pits aka goose bumps
    What is the name of the smooth muscle that connect hair follicle to papillary layer of dermis?
  100. 1. Sweat (two types eccrine and apocrine)
    2. Sebaceous
    Name two types of glands
  101. HYPOTONIC.  what is the ph? 4-6.  This means sweat is NOT salty.  Our skin is salty

    palms, soles, forehead
    Are eccrine sweat glands are hypo or hyper tonic?

    Where are they located?
  102. in dermis but released into hair follicles, active at puberty, have extra bacteria

    primarily in axillary & genital
    Apocrine sweat glands are located where?
  103. always attached to the hair follicle
    found all over the skin (except palms, soles) 
    Product is.... sebum (a natural oil)
    Where is sebaceous gland located? aka oil glands
  104. types of glands- pic

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