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2013-10-06 00:12:47
Axial System skull hyoid

Axial System
Show Answers:

    • The Axial System
    • -80 bones
    • -Lie along the longitudinal axis
    • -Skull, hyoid, vertebrae, ribs, sternum, ear, ossicles
    • The Skull
    • 8 Cranial Bones:
    • -protect brain and house ear ossicles
    • -muscle attachment for jaw, neck and facial muscles

    • 14 Facial Bones:
    • -protect delicate sense organs-smell, taste, vision
    • -support entrances to digestive and respiratory systems
    • 8 Cranial Bones
    • Frontal
    • Parietal (2)
    • Temporal (2)
    • Occipital
    • Sphenoid
    • Ethmoid
    • Frontal Bone
    • Forehead, roof of orbits, and anterior cranial floor.
    • Supraorbital margin (brow line) and frontal sinus
    • Parietal
    • Sides and roof of cranial cavity
    • Temporal
    • temporal squama
    • zygomatic process (connected to the zygomatic bone...cheek bone) forms part of the arch
    • external auditory meatus
    • mastoid process
    • styloid process
    • stylomastoid foramen (VII)
    • mandibular fossa (TMJ)
    • petrous portion (VIII)
    • Temporal
    • carotid foramen (carotid artery)
    • jugular foramen (jugular vein)
    • Occipital
    • Foramen magnum
    • Occipital Condyles
    • External Occipital protuberance attachment for ligamentum nuchae
    • superior and inferior nuchal lines
    • Sphenoid Bone
    • Base of the skull
    • Pterygoid processes are attachment sites for jaw muscles
    • Sphenoid Anterior
    • Body is a cube like portion holding sphenoid sinuses
    • Greater and lesser wings
    • Pterygoid processes
    • Sphenoid from Superior View
    • Lesser wing and greater wing
    • Sella Turcica holds pituitary gland
    • Optic foramen
    • Ethmoid Bone
    • part of the anterior portion of the cranial floor
    • the medial wall of the orbits
    • the superior portion of the nasal septum
    • most of the superior side walls of the nasalĀ  cavity
    • it is a major superior supporting structure of the nasal cavity
    • crista galli (the upper part of the bone) attaches to the membranes that cover the brain
    • lateral masses contain ethmoid sinuses
    • perpendicular plate is upper part of nasal septum
    • superior and middle nasal concha or turbinates: filter and warms air
    • Maxillary Bones
    • Floor of orbit, floor of nasal cavity or hard palate
    • Maxillary sinus
    • Alveolar processes hold upper teeth
    • Cleft palate is lack of union of maxillary bones
    • Zygomatic Bones
    • Cheekbones
    • Lateral wall of orbit along with sphenoid
    • Part of zygomatic arch along with part of temporal
    • Lacrimal and Inferior Nasal Conchae
    • Lacrimal bones:
    • part of medial wall of orbit
    • lacrimal fossa houses lacrimal sac
    • Inferior nasal concha or turbinate: (not part of ethmoid)
    • Mandible
    • Body, angle and rami
    • Condylar and coronoid processes
    • Alveolar processes for lower teeth
    • Mandibular and mental foramen
  1. Temporomandibular Joint (TMJ)
    • Made when the mandible articulates with the temporal bone
    • TMJ syndrome: causes are numerous and treatment is variable
    • Palatine
    • L-shaped: one end is back part of hear palate
    • Vomer
    • posterior part of nasal septum
    • Nasal Septum
    • Divides nasal cavity into left and right sides
    • Formed by vomer, perpendicular plate of ethmoid and septal cartilage
    • Deviated septum does not line in the midline: this is because of a developmental abnormality or trauma
    • Orbits
    • Eye sockets that contain the eyeballs
    • Bones of the Orbit:
    • Roof is frontal and sphenoid
    • Lateral wall is zygomatic and sphenoid
    • Floor is maxilla, zygomatic, and sphenoid
    • Medial wall is maxilla, lacrimal, ethmoid and sphenoid
    • Orbital fissures and optic foramen
  2. Foramina of the Skull: Foramen Magnum
    • Occipital bone
    • Inferior part of brain connects with spinal cord (CN XI)
    • Vertebral and spinal arteries pass through this opening
  3. Foramina of the Skull: Optic Foramen
    • Sphenoid bone
    • Optic nerve (II) and ophthalmic artery
  4. Foramina of the Skull: Mandibular Foramen
  5. Foramina of the Skull: Carotid Foramen
    • Temporal bone (between greater and lesser wings)
    • Internal carotid artery
  6. Foramina of the Skull: Stylomastoid Foramen
    • Temporal bone (between mastoid and styloid processes)
    • CN VII (Facial) and stylomastoid artery
  7. Sutures
    • immovable joints found between skull bones. Hold skull bones together
    • Can include:
    • Coronal: unites the frontal and both parietal bones
    • Sagittal: unites the two parietal bones
    • Lambdoid: unites the two parietal bones to the occipital
    • Squamous: unites the parietal and temporal bones
    • Lamboid suture: unites parietal and occipital
    • Sagittal suture: unites 2 parietal bones
    • Coronal Suture: unites frontal and both parietal bones
    • Squamous Suture: unites parietal and temporal bones
    • Paranasal Sinuses
    • Cavities bones of the skull that communicate with the nasal cavity
    • are lined by mucous membranes and open into the nasal cavity. They lighten the skull and serve as resonating chambers for speech
    • Cranial bones bones containing sinuses: frontal, sphenoid, ethmoid, and maxillae
    • Sinusitis: when membranes become inflamed due to infection or allergy.
    • Fontanels of Skull
    • Dense connective tissue membrane-filled spaces between the cranial bones of fetuses and infants. Start off as unossified but then close.
    • Major: anterior, posterior, anterolaterals, and posterolaterals
    • Functions: enable the fetal skull to modify size and shape as it goes through the birth canal
    • Permit rapid growth of brain during infancy
  8. Hyoid Bone
    • U-shaped single bone
    • Articulates with no other bone of the body
    • Suspended by ligament and muscle from the skull
    • Supports the tongue and provides attachment for tongue, neck, and pharyngeal muscles