Lecture exam 2

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Lecture exam 2
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2013-10-05 22:13:48
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Pathogenic Microbiology
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Study cards for Lecture exam 2
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  1. Chemicals that modify nucleobases – example: alkylating agents

    Base analogs  - like AZT

    Intercalating agents – like ethidium bromide
    The three classes of chemical mutagens
  2. UV light is a thymidine dimmer and X-rays nick
    the DNA backbone.
    The two best examples of radiation damage of DNA (X-rays, UV) and what it type of damage they do
  3. The sequence of nucleotides in the DNA of an
    organism
    Genotype
  4. The properties of a cell determined by the
    expression of the genotype
    Phenotype
  5. A change in the nucleotide sequence of a cells DNA that is then passed on to daughter cells.
    Mutation
  6. Transmission of DNA from one bacterium to
    another through conjugation, DNA-mediated transformation, or transduction
    Horizontal gene transfer
  7. Transfer of a pathogen from one person to
    another through contact, ingestion of food or water, or via a living agent such as an insect
    Horizontal transmission
  8. Organisms that use light as a form of energy
    Prototroph
  9. A microorganism that requires an organic growth factor
    Auxotroph
  10. Describes an organism that has the typical characteristics of the species isolated from nature
    Wild type
  11. A mutation in which the wrong nucleotide has
    been incorporated.
    Base substitution
  12. Mutation in which only a single base pair is
    involved.
    Point mutation
  13. Mutation resulting from the addition or deletion of a number of nucleotides not divisible by three.
    Frame shift mutation
  14. the addition of nucleotides causing an mutation or frame shift
    Nucleotide addition
  15. Movement of a piece of DNA from one DNA site to another in the same cell.
    Transposon/transposition
  16. Using the energy of light to break the covalent
    bonds joining thymine dimmers, thereby restoring the DNA to its original state
    Photoactivation
  17. Mechanism of DNA repair in which a fragment of single stranded DNA that contains a fragment of single-stranded DNA that contains mismatched bases is removed and replaced.
    Excision repairs
  18. Technique of selecting mutants by plating
    organisms on a medium on which the desired mutants but not the parent will grow.
    Direct selection
  19. In microbial genetics, a technique for isolating mutants and identifying organisms unable to grow on medium on which the parents do grow
    Indirect selection
  20. Technique for the simultaneous transfer of
    organisms in separated colonies from one medium to another
    Replica plating
  21. A test that screens for potential carcinogens by measuring the ability of a substance to increase the mutation frequency in a bacterial strain
    Ames test
  22. A mechanism of horizontal gene transfer in which “naked” DNA is transferred
    Transformation
  23. Mechanism of horizontal gene transfer in which bacterial DNA is transferred inside a phage.
    Transduction
  24. In bacteria, a mechanism of horizontal gene transfer that involves cell- to- cell contact.
    Conjugation
  25. Piece of DNA that is capable of replicating; contains an origin of replication.
    Replicon
  26. A horizontal gene transfer, physiological
    condition in which a bacterial cell is capable of taking up DNA
    Competence/competent cells
  27. What kind of bond does UV light form between adjacent thymine bases? Why might that be a problem for DNA replication?
    UV light causes covalent bonds to form between adjacent thymine molecules on the same strand of DNA,distorting the shape of the DNA (bonds the two T’s together)
  28. The three major types of DNA repair.
    DNA polymerase proofreading and mismatch repair;Damaged nucleobase replacement; and Repair of thymidine dimmers
  29. The three types of horizontal gene transfer
    Transformation, transduction and conjugation.
  30. Conjugation involves what type of DNA?
    In bacteria, a mechanism of horizontal gene transfer that involves cell-to-cell transfer
  31. Transduction involves what type of DNA and uses what vector?
    Mechanism of horizontal gene transfer in which bacterial DNA is transferred
  32. Deliberately altering an organism’s genetic information using an in vitro technique.
    Genetic engineering
  33. A type of enzyme
    that recognizes a specific nucleotide sequence and then cuts the DNA within or
    near that site.  (may produce “sticky”
    cuts)

    Restriction enzyme
  34. Enzyme that forms covalent bonds between
    adjacent fragments of DNA
    DNA ligase
  35. A technique that uses a electric current to separate either DNA fragments or proteins according to size by drawing them through a slab of gel.
    Gel electrophoresis
  36. A procedure in which a fragment of DNA is
    inserted into a vector and then transferred to another cell, where it then replicates.
    Cloning DNA
  37. Complimentary DNA (encodes the same protein as the original DNA by lacks introns)
    cDNA
  38. DNA molecule, often a plasmid, that functions as a carrier of cloned DNA.

    Vector
  39. Contains the recognition sequence of several different restriction enzymes.
    Multiple cloning site
  40. DNA molecule created by combining DNA from two or more sources
    Recombinant DNA
  41. Green Fluorescence Protein
    GFP
  42. Each cell contains one fragment of a given
    genome
    DNA library
  43. Distinct region of a DNA molecule at which replication is initiated.
    Origin of replication
  44. Gene that encodes a selectable phenotype such as antibiotic resistance
    Selective marker


  45. Used to differentiate cells containing recombinant plasmids from those that contain an intact vector (like the lacZ Gene)

    Secondary (insertion) marker
  46. small, machine synthesized piece of DNA used to find specific places on any piece of DNA.
    Primer
  47. PCR – Polymerase Chain Reactin – method used to create millions of copies of a given region of DNA in only a matter of hours.
    a. Denaturation – Heating to 95°C denatures DNA

    b. Annealing – Cooling to 50°C allows the added primers to anneal to the single stranded templates.

    • c. Extension – DNA synthesis occurs when the temperature is raised to 72°C.
  48. Nucleotide that lacks the 3’OH group, the
    portion required for the addition of subsequent nucleotides during DNA synthesis
    Dideoxynucleotides
  49. A piece of DNA, labeled in some manner, that can hybridize to a certain nucleotide sequence as a means to detect that sequence
    DNA probe
  50. Fluorescent in situ hybridization – A procedure that uses a fluorescently labeled probe to detect specific nucleotide sequences within intact cells attached to a microscope
    FISH

  51. A solid support that contains a fixed pattern of numerous different single stranded nucleic acid fragments of know sequences.

    DNA microarray
  52. Why would one place a gene of interest in a high copy number vector?
    This could be done to highly express a gene (like making lots of insulin), or to make lots of the DNA for DNA vaccinations.
  53. What is the most common vector for cloning or other DNA techniques?
    a plasmid

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