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3 Things Genetic Material must do
- 1. Contain complex info: instructions for traits and functions of an organism; allow variation - between & within a species; must be stable - few alternations
- 2. Replicate faithfully: single cell --> billions of cells divisions: pass info onto progeny
- 3. Encode a phenotype: determine the traits of an organism.
What is DNA/RNA
Phosphate, a sugar and a base
What are bases?
- Purine: Adenine, Guanine
- Pyrimidine: Cytosine, Thymine, Uracil
Role of RNA
- Carry genetic info out of the nucleus (eukaryotes)
- Template for translation of information into polypeptides
3 Fundamentals of Transcription
- 1. DNA template
- 2. Substrates to build RNA molecule
- 3. Protein apparatus to catalyse synthesis of the RNA molecule
- The template strand is transcribed into RNA
- Coding strand == non-template strand
- Follows Watson-Crick rules
- RNA molecule is 'complementary' to the template strand
- RNA molecule has the same base sequence as the coding strand
Upstream activator sequence
Downstream promoter elements
Occurs when mRNA, in post-transcriptional modificiation is "cut" wrong, either missing an exon (cassete alternative exon), alternative 5' splice sites, alternative 3' splice sites, intron retention, mutually exclusive alternative exons, alternative promoter first exon, or alternative poly A site and terminal exon
Example of Alternative splicing in Animals
Muscular dystrophy in Golden retrievers
Substrates of translation
- Amino acids
Genetic code has:
61 sense codons and 3 stop codons, so some amino acids have more than one codon sequence.
The first codon of mRNA to specify an amino acid, usually AUG -> Met
3 steps to translation
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