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  1. 3 Things Genetic Material must do
    • 1. Contain complex info: instructions for traits and functions of an organism; allow variation - between & within a species; must be stable - few alternations
    • 2. Replicate faithfully: single cell --> billions of cells divisions: pass info onto progeny
    • 3. Encode a phenotype: determine the traits of an organism.
  2. What is DNA/RNA
    Phosphate, a sugar and a base
  3. What are bases?
    • Purine: Adenine, Guanine
    • Pyrimidine: Cytosine, Thymine, Uracil
  4. Role of RNA
    • Carry genetic info out of the nucleus (eukaryotes)
    • Template for translation of information into polypeptides
  5. 3 Fundamentals of Transcription
    • 1. DNA template
    • 2. Substrates to build RNA molecule
    • 3. Protein apparatus to catalyse synthesis of the RNA molecule
    • The template strand is transcribed into RNA
    • Coding strand == non-template strand
    • Follows Watson-Crick rules
    • RNA molecule is 'complementary' to the template strand
    • RNA molecule has the same base sequence as the coding strand
  6. UAS
    Upstream activator sequence
  7. INR
    Initiator sequences
  8. DPE
    Downstream promoter elements
  9. Alternative Splicing
    Occurs when mRNA, in post-transcriptional modificiation is "cut" wrong, either missing an exon (cassete alternative exon), alternative 5' splice sites, alternative 3' splice sites, intron retention, mutually exclusive alternative exons, alternative promoter first exon, or alternative poly A site and terminal exon
  10. Example of Alternative splicing in Animals
    Muscular dystrophy in Golden retrievers
  11. Substrates of translation
    • mRNA
    • tRNA
    • Ribosomes
    • Amino acids
  12. Genetic code has:
    61 sense codons and 3 stop codons, so some amino acids have more than one codon sequence.
  13. Initiation codon
    The first codon of mRNA to specify an amino acid, usually AUG -> Met
  14. 3 steps to translation
    • Initiation
    • Elogation
    • Termination
Card Set:
2013-10-06 03:22:01
Lecture one

Central Dogma
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