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How does lymph form?
During blood capillary exchange, 20L of blood (fluid) leaving the blood cycle to the interstitial and only 17L will return to the blood cycle.
The remaining 3L will become lymph by enter peripheral lymphatic capillaries
Which WBC become macrophage?
Which WBC will stained with neutral dyes?
Which WBC produces Lysosomal enzyme?
- Lysosomal enzyme digest bacteria after it has been engulfed be neutrophil.
Which WBC will be elevated during bacterial infection?
Which WBC release cytotoxic enzymes?
Which WBC decrease inflammation? How does it do this?
- It's sensitivity to allergens cause it to release enzyme that breaks down histamine.
Which WBC stained with acidic dyes?
Which WBC increase inflammation?
Which WBC able to attack large parasites.
What form pus?
Dead bacteria and blood cells.
What stains with basic dyes?
Which WBC elevated during chronic infection?
What is the purpose of attracting fibroblast to an infected body are?
Fibroblasts will produce scar tissue around the infected area which isolate the infection and prevent it from spreading to adjacent tissue.
What are the effects of histamine & heparin?
- In general they cause inflammation.
- Histamine cause visodialation that increase inflammation.
- Heparin prevent blood clotting.
What is respiratory burst? Which cell produce it?
- Production of Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) by Neutrophil.
- H2O2 kills bacteria.
Which WBC is able to migrate back and forth between blood and tissue?
How do lymph nodes swell during infection?
Immune cells in the lymph nodes multiply during infection.
What role tonsils play in immunity?
They are the first place to fight air born pathogens.
What is the function of Peyers patches?
Fight food born pathogens.
What are the functions of lymph nodes?
- Filter the lymph from pathogens.
- Immune cells in the lymph node divide and the lymph node swells.
- Also, dendritic cells in the lymph node (medulla) involve in initiation of immune response.
What type(s) of cells are in the inner cortex of lymph nodes? Which are in the outer cortex?
- The inner cortex of lymph node dominated by T cells.
- The outer cortex of lymph node contain B cells.
What are the function of the spleen?
- The spleen removes abnormal blood cells & pathogens via phagocytosis.
- The spleen stores Iron.
- The spleen trigger immune response
- The spleen stores platelets.
- The spleen produces RBCs in infants.
What cells mature in the thymus?
- All the T cells.
- Certain stem cells travel from the red bone marrow to the thymus and become T cells in the thymus.
How the size of the thymus change over time? What effect will this have?
- The thymus will increase in size from birth until puberty It will reach 40g at it's largest stage.
- After puberty and as we grow older the thymus's size decreases. It will shrink to 10g.
- AS result as we grow older our immune weakened because the production of T cells (that occur in the thymus decrease)
How primary lymphatic organs different from secondary lymphatic organs?
- Primary lymphatic organs are the red bone marrow & the thymus. These are the locations that stem cells divide and become immunocompetents.( able to preform immune response)
- The secondary lymphatic organs are lymph nodes, spleen, and tonsils. In these location immune response occur.
Where does the lymph go after it finish circulating through the body?
- Back to the blood circulation.
- It drained by the right lymphatic duct into the right subclavian vein and by the thoracic duct into the left subclavian vein.
What regions of the body drained by the two lymphatic ducts?
- All regions of the body inferior to the diaphragm and the left regions of the body superior to the diaphragm are drained by the thoracic duct.
- The right side of the body superior to the diaphragm drained by the right lymphatic duct.
- α-interferons attract NK cells.
- β-interferons decrease inflammation.
- γ-interferons stimulate macrophage.
what is the function of interferon?
It prevent viruses from multiply.
How NK cells destroy their targets?
- 1. NK bind to target cell.
- 2. the golgi apparatus of the NK cell turning to face the target cell.
- 3.The NK cell releas perforin that create pores in the target cell membrane.
- The target cell lysis because it cannot maintain its internal environment.
What are the steps in phagocytic process?
- 1. Phagocyte cell form pseudopods.
- 2. Pseudopod engulf the organism and become phagosome.
- 3.Phagosome combine with lysosome.
- 4, The enzyme of lysosome break down the organism.
- 5. After the organism is broken down to components, it leave the phagocyte via excytosis.
- The end :)
How does fixed macrophage different from free macrophage?
Fixed macrophage: stay in one place in the tissue. for example Kupffer ceiils in the liver, Dust cells in the lungs, and macroglia in the CNS.
Free macrophage: is wondering all over
Both divide from Monocytes.
What structures form the 1st line of defense? What role do they play in immunity?
- Skin, hair: keep pathogens out.
- Glands secretion such as sebaceous and sweat wash out pathogens
- Stomach acid, and enzymes in the saliva kill pathogens.
What are the functions of antibodies: IgG, IgE, IgD, IgM, and IgA
- IgG, resistance to viruses & bacteria also can cross the placenta therefore, anti-D is a IgG type,
- IgE, Bind to basophil & must cells, increase inflammation, play a role in allergic response.
- IgD, Involve in B cell sensitization.
- IgM, The first antibody release. Anti-A & anti-B are types of IgM antibodies.
- IgA, Found in glandular secretion. Able to be secreted on epithelial cells surface,
What cells will B cells differentiate into? What will those cells then will produce?
B cells will differentiate into plasma cells that produce antibodies molecules.
B cell sensitization.
After TH are activated, they will sensitize B cells as follow:
Antigens will bind to antibodies on the surface of the B cell.
This will not activate the B cell yet but it will prepare it to response to TH cell that will activate it.
Death of a cell or tissue as result of injury
the passage of blood cells through the intact walls of the capillaries, typically accompanying inflammation.
How induced passive immunity will work?
Antibodies that we cannot make ourselves injected to us.
From where we get naturally acquired passive immunity?
From mother to fetus via the placenta and from mother to baby via breast milk.
Passive immunity = antibodies that are given to us from outsource.
What type of cells will be activated in response to CD8 and CD4?
- CD8 Cytotoxic T cells, or Suppressor T cells, and ( in both cases) Memory T cells.
- CD4 Helper T cell, Memory T cell, Memory B cell, and B cells that will activate plasma cell to release antibodies.
Ho does naturally acquired active immunity developed?
As we grow old we have been exposed to different pathogens our immune system remembers them. that allow us to fight the more efficiently.
What does CD8 response to? How about CD4?
- CD8 recognize and response to MHCI antigen presentation.
- CD4 recognize and response to MHCII antigen presentation
What will occur as result of MHCII antigen presentation.
Phagocyte engulf extracellular pathogen. After the phagocyte digest the pathogen, MHCII bind to the pathogen's antigen and present it on the surface of the phagocyte to helper T cell.
Where will you find MHCII?
Will MHCII will present intracellular or extra cellular antigens?
What will occur in response to MHCI presentation?
When a cell is infected by virus or bacteria antigens will incorporate into MHCI then the MHCI and the antigen will move to the surface of the cell and MHCI will present the antigen to T cell.
Where you expected to find MHC I?
In all nucleated cells of intracellular antigen presentation.
What component of of the immune system is involve in antigen presentation?
MHC (MHC I & MHC II)
Which T cell able to stimulate both B cells and T cells?
Helper T cell
This class of T cell will prevent your body from attacking self antigens.
Suppressor T cell
This type of T cell will form after an initial exposure to pathogen and allow for quicker response when you are exposed a second time.
Memory T cell
Which T cell will form direct attack against infected or foreign cells?
Cytotoxic T cell
Which lymphocyte defense against etracellular pathogens?
Which lymphocyte defense against intercellular pathogens?
Why can a low degree of fever be a good thing?
- It will inhibit pathogens activity
- It will increase the metabolic rate. For every raise of 1oC, the metabolic rate will increase 10 times.
This allow better ability to fight infections.
What are the four signs of inflammation?
Swelling, redness, heat, and pain.
11 plasma proteins that interact and attack foreign cells. A cscade reaction that leads to destroy the foreign cell.
- classical pathway is the most rapid and effective way. It starts with C1 that activated by binding to antibodies that already attached to the membrane of the foreign cell
- Alternative pathway: 1) Opsonization is a coating that enhance phagocytosis. 2) Membrane attack complex are proteins that make pores in the target cell and kill it.
How the lymphatic capillaries differ from blood capillaries?
- Lymphatic capillaries start at dead end.
- Lymphatic capillaries have bigger diameter then blood capillaries.
- Lymphatic capillaries have thinner walls then blood capillaries.
- Endothelial cells of lymphatic capillaries overlap. that prevent fluid from back flow.