higher levels of certain constituents (K+, ALP, enzymes, LDH, Ca, Mg, LD, AST, ALT, GGT, folate, iron.
interferes with lipase and bilirubin determinations
Blood for CBC
anticoagulated. Lavender top, EDTA tube.
CBC consists of (9)
PVC or hematocrit
blood smear (differential, automated, give counts, morphology, platelet estimate, inclusion bodies and blood parasites)
Total plasma protein
erythrocyte indices (MVC, MCH, MCHC)
MCV, MCH, MCHC
performed to check for degree/type of anemia
COunt of reticulocytes (must be anticoagulated blood)
purple top, used for CBCs. Anticoagulant.
Spun, plasma only used for cTnI (cardiac troponin I)
Green top. Can be used for CBC, not great for WBC. Used in exotics, plasma can be used for chemistries, so good when only a small amount of blood available.
Sodium citrate tube
blue top. Not used for CBCs.
Clotting factor tests.
Sodium floride tube
grey top. Rare in vet. Used in glucose tolerance tests
Red stopper tube
nothing inside. Coated with silicone to prevent sticking. Yields serum after spinning.
Red/tan striped stopper tube
(tiger top). Serum separator. Contains wax plug between serum and clot. Yields serum, you can pour serum out without a pipette.
removable liquid part of a sample after centrifugation.
liquid part (supernatant) of anticoagulated blood
liquid part (supernatant) of clotted blood.
packed cell volume. Made up of RBC, buffy coat and plasma.
told with plasma on a refractometer (scales for proteins and specific gravity)
Estimated platelet count
Count platelets in 10 oil immersion fields on stained blood smear, multiply by 15,000. Platelets per microliter.
Look at feather edge for clots.
Why do corrected WBC count?
Automated counter counts nRBCs as WBCs, have to subtract for accuracy.
five lobes or more. Can be from EDTA or old neutrophils, or disease/inherited condition
VERY early neutrophil, marked left shift, usually seen with many band cells. Cytoplasm darker.
Extremely immature neutrophil, younger than metamyelocyte, very rarely seen.
Can be small or large. Small has less cytoplasm and is smaller. Cytoplasm is pale blue.
a-typical, abnormal, reactive (granulation)
Toxic changes in neutrophils
signifies rapid reproduction, can be too much EDTA or old blood too.
Least to most severe is dohle bodies, cytoplasmic basophilia, vacuoles or foaminess, intensely stained primary granules (toxic granulation), change in nuclear size and shape (or change in nuclear cytoplasmic ratio).
Red blood cell changes
basophilic staining (common in mature ruminants, sometimes in cats with anemia, lead poisoning in dogs)
oxidative injury to RBCs. 5-10% normal in cats.
Nipple-like projection of denatured hemoglobin
nuclear remnants, stain blue. More significant in dogs than cats (more common in cats)
Precursors to platelets
Where we look on a blood slide
everywhere, then monolayer
pointed projections around cell, caused by smear not being dry before fixing.
stacking (coins), normal in horse.
clumping of cells, immune mediated. Can try saline agglutination test
blue tint to cell (usually macrocytic, reticulocytes)
decreased staining in cell due to decreased hemoglobin.
rod shaped pallor across cell. no significance unless there are lots, then inherited.
variation in size of cell. Microcytosis or macrocytosis.
change in shape, general term (must be qualified with specifics)