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Specimens should be labeled with (4-7)
- date sample was taken, species, ID, initials
- optionally, age, history and symptoms of specimen
Preferred way of drawing blood sample
vaccutainer bolder with needle attachment or as large a needle as possible, gently put into tube
- breaking apart or destruction of RBCs caused by trauma. Pink or red serum.
- Can effect chemistry and hemology results.
- can be caused by alcohol
- diluted sample leads to falsely lower concentrations (PVC, RBC count, WBC count)
- higher levels of certain constituents (K+, ALP, enzymes, LDH, Ca, Mg, LD, AST, ALT, GGT, folate, iron.
- interferes with lipase and bilirubin determinations
Blood for CBC
anticoagulated. Lavender top, EDTA tube.
CBC consists of (9)
- RBC count
- WBC count
- platelet count
- PVC or hematocrit
- blood smear (differential, automated, give counts, morphology, platelet estimate, inclusion bodies and blood parasites)
- Total plasma protein
- erythrocyte indices (MVC, MCH, MCHC)
MCV, MCH, MCHC
- performed to check for degree/type of anemia
- COunt of reticulocytes (must be anticoagulated blood)
- purple top, used for CBCs. Anticoagulant.
- Spun, plasma only used for cTnI (cardiac troponin I)
Green top. Can be used for CBC, not great for WBC. Used in exotics, plasma can be used for chemistries, so good when only a small amount of blood available.
Sodium citrate tube
- blue top. Not used for CBCs.
- Clotting factor tests.
Sodium floride tube
grey top. Rare in vet. Used in glucose tolerance tests
Red stopper tube
nothing inside. Coated with silicone to prevent sticking. Yields serum after spinning.
Red/tan striped stopper tube
(tiger top). Serum separator. Contains wax plug between serum and clot. Yields serum, you can pour serum out without a pipette.
removable liquid part of a sample after centrifugation.
liquid part (supernatant) of anticoagulated blood
liquid part (supernatant) of clotted blood.
packed cell volume. Made up of RBC, buffy coat and plasma.
told with plasma on a refractometer (scales for proteins and specific gravity)
Estimated platelet count
- Count platelets in 10 oil immersion fields on stained blood smear, multiply by 15,000. Platelets per microliter.
- Look at feather edge for clots.
Why do corrected WBC count?
Automated counter counts nRBCs as WBCs, have to subtract for accuracy.
five lobes or more. Can be from EDTA or old neutrophils, or disease/inherited condition
VERY early neutrophil, marked left shift, usually seen with many band cells. Cytoplasm darker.
Extremely immature neutrophil, younger than metamyelocyte, very rarely seen.
- Can be small or large. Small has less cytoplasm and is smaller. Cytoplasm is pale blue.
- a-typical, abnormal, reactive (granulation)
Toxic changes in neutrophils
- signifies rapid reproduction, can be too much EDTA or old blood too.
- Least to most severe is dohle bodies, cytoplasmic basophilia, vacuoles or foaminess, intensely stained primary granules (toxic granulation), change in nuclear size and shape (or change in nuclear cytoplasmic ratio).
Red blood cell changes
basophilic staining (common in mature ruminants, sometimes in cats with anemia, lead poisoning in dogs)
- oxidative injury to RBCs. 5-10% normal in cats.
- Nipple-like projection of denatured hemoglobin
nuclear remnants, stain blue. More significant in dogs than cats (more common in cats)
Precursors to platelets
Where we look on a blood slide
everywhere, then monolayer
pointed projections around cell, caused by smear not being dry before fixing.
stacking (coins), normal in horse.
clumping of cells, immune mediated. Can try saline agglutination test
blue tint to cell (usually macrocytic, reticulocytes)
decreased staining in cell due to decreased hemoglobin.
rod shaped pallor across cell. no significance unless there are lots, then inherited.
variation in size of cell. Microcytosis or macrocytosis.
change in shape, general term (must be qualified with specifics)
spur cells. uneven blunt projections. Hepatic lipidosis, hermangiosarcoma, dogs with liver diease
burr cells. Spiculated cells with evenly spaced and sized projections. Not blunt.
round, smaller than normal, darkened cells with no/little central pallor. IMHA
thin, folded or distorted cells. Target cells. Too much EDTA or precursers to acanthocytes
incompletely fragmented cells
displacement of hemoglobin because opposing sides of the RBC membranes have fused due to oxidative injury.
bowl shaped erythrocytes, too much membrane flexibility
teardrop shaped erythrocytes seen in myelofibrosis. Artifact if all tails point same directions
oval elliptical cells or elongated.
large teardrop shaped intracellular organisms, seen at feather edge. Looks like a vacuole. Tick-bourne.
short dark purple rods on periphery of cell. Also mycoplasma haemofelis.
intracellular parasite in monocytes and neutrophils. Looks like small clusters called morulae.
Refractile droplets within RBCs. Which stain is messed up?
Fixative has water in it.
spin 2 microhematocrit tubes. Read plasma protein on one, put the other in 56 degree C water for 5 minutes, then read again. Fibrinogen has precipitated.
usually blue top. Whole blood clotting time, activated clotting time, bleeding time
Ways to get RBC and WBC in birds and reptiles
Natt and Herrick's solution or eosinophil method (indirect)
How to count on a slide (manual)
What do you need to calculate an absolute count?
Differential and absolute count (percentage vs. absolute number)
Four things in a SNAP test
lyme, heartworm, ehrlichia, anaplasmosis
Mice and rats
- granulocyte nuclei are doughnut shaped.
- Basophils may be confused with mast cells (appear with cardiocentesis)
- Hamsters, gerbils and chinchillas have same hematological features
Guinea pig hemology
larger RBC than other rodents. Kurloff bodies.
- neutrophils have eosiniphilic granules and are called heterophils (used to be called pseudo-eosinophils). Same function.
- Eosinophils have larger granules.
Inhalant anesthetics decrease RBC and hematocrit, as much as 33%.
thin, elliptical erythrocytes. Gives higher oxygen carrying capacity due to high altitude
Colors of plasma
- red: hemolysis (slight v. marked)
- yellow: icteric (normal in horse)
- white and cloudy: lipemic
- 1. Fixative
- 2. eosin stain for RBC, eosinophils and some parts of parasites
- 3. Wrights-Giemsa or hematoxylin stain for nuclei of WBC, inclusion bodies and parts of parasites
Order of most frequently found WBC in cats and dogs
- No Lazy Monkeys Eat Bananas
- neutrophils, leukocytes, monocytes, eosinophils, basophils
metarubrocyte. immature RBC (before reticulocyte)
female sex indicator, little nodule off neutrophil nucleus
toxic change on a neutrophil, small light grey staining area in cytoplasm of neutrophil
How much of an atypical cell do you report?
write down all, but 5% significant
looks like a lymph with more cytoplasm, peripheral nucleus, vacuoles called russell bodies
distemper inclusion body
large greyish (bluish?) body in lymphocyte.
Largest RBC in rodents is in
HUGE inclusion, pushing nucleus of lymph to side. Sometimes in guinea pigs
Dif between basophilic rubricyte and thrombocyte in bird
Basophilic rubrocyte is bigger, has dark cytoplasm. Throbocyte has very pale cytoplasm.
Small lymphocyte vs thrombocyte in bird
Small lymph is bigger
Blood parasite plasmodium common name
malaria. Avian plasmodium.
extracellular, big leaf-shape. Exotic
big darker vacuole inside of cell. Exotic
in reptiles, like monocyte. Same function.
If you cannot positively identify an inclusion you classify it as....
an inclusion. Don't classify unless you can tell.
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