Anatomy

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Author:
Jwannn
ID:
238965
Filename:
Anatomy
Updated:
2013-10-06 17:10:09
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Axial System thorax spine
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Axial System
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    • Intervertebral Discs
    • Between adjacent vertebrae absorbs vertical shock
    • Permit various movements of the vertebral column
    • Fibrocartilagenous ring with pulpy center
    • Normal Curves of the Vertebral Column
    • Primary: thoracic and sacral are formed during development
    • Secondary curves: cervical is formed when infant raises head at 4 months
    • Lumbar forms when infant sits up and begins to walk at 1 year
    • Vertebrae
    • Body: weight bearing
    • Vertebral Arch: pedicles and laminae
    • Vertebral Foramen
    • Seven Processes: 2 transverse, 1 spinous, 4 articular
    • Vertebral notches
    • Cervical Vertebrae (C3-C7)
    • the third to sixth vertebrae correspond to the structural patterns of the typical cervical vertebrae
    • the seventh is the vertebra prominens
    • The vertebrae have smaller bodies but larger spinal canal
    • Transverse process: shorter, with foramen for vertebral artery
    • Spinous processes of C2 to C6 often bifid
    • Atlas and Axis
    • The first cervical vertebra is the atlas and supports the skull
    • The atlas: ring of bone, superior facets for occipital condyles (nodding)
    • The second cervical vertebra is the axis, which permits side-to-side rotation of the head
    • Axis: dens or odontoid process is body of atlas (no)
    • Thoracic Vertebrae (T1-T12)
    • Larger and stronger bodies
    • Longer transverse and spinous processes
    • Facets or demifacets on body for head of rib
    • Facets on transverse processes (T1-T10) for tubercle of rib
    • Lumbar Vertebrae
    • Strongest and largest
    • Short think spinous and transverse processes
    • back musculature
    • Sacrum
    • Union of 5 vertebrae (S1-S5) by age 30
    • -median sacral crest was spinous processes
    • -sacral ala ("wing") is fused transverse processes
    • Sacral canal ends at sacral hiatus
    • Auricular surface and sacral tuberosity of SI joint
    • Coccyx
    • formed by the fusion of 4 coccygeal vertebrae
    • Caudal anesthesia (epidural block): used during labor, causes numbness in the regions innervated by the sacral and coccygeal nerves (waist to the knees)
    • sacral and coccygeal cornu are important landmarks
    • Thorax
    • the entire chest
    • consists of the sternum, costal cartilages, ribs, and the bodies of the thoracic vertebrae
    • encloses and protects organs in the chest and superior abdominal cavities. Also supports bones in the shoulder and upper limbs.
    • Sternum
    • Ribs: 1-7 true ribs (vertebrosternal), 8-10 false (vertebrochondral), 11-12 floating
    • Costal cartilages
    • Bodies of the thoracic vertebrae
  1. Sternum

    • located on the anterior midline of the thoracic wall
    • Three parts: manubrium, body, and xiphoid process
    • Manubrium: 1st and 2nd ribs, clavicular notch
    • Body: costal cartilages of 2-10 ribs
    • Xiphoid: ossifies by 40, CPR position, abdominal mm
    • Sternal puncture: biopsy
    • Ribs
    • Increase in length from ribs 1-7, thereafter decreasing
    • Head and tubercle articulate with facets
    • Body with costal groove containing nerve and blood vessels
    • Intercostal spaces contain intercostal muscles
    • Rib Articulation
    • tubercle articulates with transverse process
    • Head articulates with vertebral bodies
    • Herniated (Slipped) Disc
    • protrusion of the nucleus pulposus
    • Most commonly in lumbar region
    • pressure on spinal nerves causes pain
    • surgical removal of disc after laminectomy
    • Scoliosis
    • a lateral bending of the vertebral column
    • Kyphosis
    • an exaggerated curve of the thoracic curve
    • Lordosis
    • exaggeration of the lumbar curve
  2. Spina Bifida
    Congenital defect caused by failure of the vertebral laminae to unite at the midline. This may involve only one or several vertebrae; nervous tissue may or may not protrude through the skin

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