Bontragers ch 2
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Contents of bony thorax
- 2 clavicles
- 2 scapulae
- 12 pairs of ribs
- 12 thoracic vertebrae
Contents of respiratory system
Contents of Chest
- Bony Thorax
- Respiratory System
Air in the pleural cavity.
Blood in the pleural cavity.
Fluid in the lungs.
Air and blood in the pleural cavity.
Contents of the mediastinum.
- Thymus gland
- Heart and great vessels
kVp for chest
When should you use a grid?
Whenever using high kVp.
How do you reduce motion artifact?
Use high mA and short exposure time.
What is Situs Inversus?
- A congenital condition in which the major visceral organs are reversed or mirrored from their normal positions.
- 1 in 12,000 people.
- For all visceral organs to be mirrored, the correct term is dextocardia situs inversus totalis.
True or False: A horizontal x-ray beam is necessary to demonstrate air-fluid levels.
On a lateral, why is the left primarily taken?
To minimize the magnification of the heart and to provide better detail of the heart.
How much rotation is allowed on a lateral chest x-ray before it should be retaken?
1 cm or 1/4 to 1/2 inch.
How do you center a PA chest x-ray?
- Find C7 (spinous process) then 7 inches down for women and 8 inches down for men.
- Older patients may only require 6 inches.
- Some sthenic athletes may require 9 inches.
- Around T7.
How do you center a AP chest x-ray?
- 3 to 4 inches down from jugular notch.
- Around T7.
What ionization chambers should be activated for a PA or AP chest x-ray?
The 2 outside cells.
PA chest (evaluation)
- Entire lungs included
- No rotation
- Scapulae removed from lungs
- Full inspiration with 10 ribs above the diaphram
What ionization chambers should be activated for a lateral chest x-ray?
The center cell.
How much kVp for a portable chest exam?
- 70-90 kV.
- 80-100 kV if using a grid.
When performing a supine or semi-erect chest x-ray, where do you position the tube?
- The tube should be tilted caudad so it is parallel to the sternum while the CR is perpendicular to the sternum.
- Without the caudad angle, the film will appear lordotic.
How much tube tilt is required for a lordotic image?
15 to 20 degree cephalad tube tilt.
A left lateral decubitus position (AP projection) could be used to diagnose what?
left lung pleural effusion or right lung pneumothorax.
Where do you center the CR for an upper respiratory exam?
- Midway between the laryngeal prominence of the thyroid cartilage (Adam's apple) and the jugular notch.
- Around C6 or C7.
- Exposure made during slow deep inspiration.
- Acanthiomeatal Line is perpendicular to IR.
What is congestive heart failure?
- Exploding heart image.
- A condition in which the heart can't pump enough blood to the body's other organs.
What is a PICC line?
- Peripherally Inserted Central Catheter.
- Inserted through arm vein and ends in heart ventrical.
The factors to evaluate the quality of a chest x-ray are:
- Penetration - see spine through the heart
- Inspiration - atleast 8-9 posterior ribs
- Rotation - spinous process between clavicles
- Angulation - clavicle over 3rd rib
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