History Final

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History Final
2013-12-12 20:12:56
American History

Study Cards For Albany's American History Final
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  1. Fugitive Slave Law (1850)
    Declared that slaves are property not people
  2. Dread Scott Decision (1857)
    A slave, Scott escaped to the the north where slavery did not exist. when he got there he claimed to be free. under the Fugitive slave act, he was property so had to be returned to owner
  3. Abraham Lincoln
    President who is known for saving the union, abolished slavery, later assassinated by John Wilkes Booth.
  4. Ulysses S. Grant
    Army General for the Union. let General Robert E. Lee Surender under his own terms. later becomes president due to military success and popularity with new black voters. but was very poor president because failed to act on reconstruction, was a drunk, and could have done more to integrate north
  5. Andrew Johnson
    Lincolns Vice president, becomes president after Lincoln's assassination. he was a southern but despised the "plantation class". was a democrat but allied with to northern republicans . opposed succession and the war but not slavery. poor president
  6. Robert E. Lee
    Confederate army general. surrendered to Ulysses S. Grant, to end the war
  7. Reconstruction Act (1867)
    • Divided the south into 5 "military Districts"
    • Permitted reentry to union only after..
    •                 *Pledges of citizen loyalty 
    •                 *Assent to 14 amendment
  8. Reconstruction Amendments (13,14,15)
    • 13-freed the slaves
    • 14-citizenship for slaves
    • 15-citizens can vote
  9. Freedman's Bureau
    Tried to help former slaves, didn't really work
  10. Jim Crow Laws
    • Tried to get black to refrain from voting. black men shouldn't talk to white woman. refer to all white men and children as sir. grandfather clause
    • "sperate but equal"
  11. Compromise of 1877
    Hayes Vs. Tilden. Popular vote went to Tilden, but electoral vote too close to count, so they gave states to Hayes (republican), if they let Louisiana, florida and South Carolina in without pledging citizenship or anything else
  12. Homestead Act of 1862
    allowed settlements of 160 acres to be bought by slaves or widowed woman, if they occupied it for 5 years, and then would gain title
  13. Morill Land Grand Act of 1862
    conveyed to each state 30,000 acres of federal land, per number of congressman per state
  14. Black Codes
    issued by southern legislators, to show they intended to preserve slavery as nearly as possible
  15. Thaddeus Stevens
    Famous Radical Republican
  16. Carpetbaggers
    northerners who allegedly rushed north with all their belongings in "carpet bags" to grab the rich political spoils were more often than not union veterens
  17. Scalawags
    Native white republicans, opposed succession, forming a unionist majority in many mountian counties  James Longstreet
  18. Greenbacks
    since most war bonds had been bought with depreciated green backs, they should be paid off in greenbacks rather than gold.
  19. Horace Greeley
    the prominent editor of the New York Tribune, champion of almost every reform, promoted vegetarianism, socialism, and spiritualism.
  20. Why Move West?
    • Link up with the pacific coast
    • Gold in California 
    • Silver in Nevada
    • Industrialization
    • Transcontinental Railroad
    • Manifest destiny
  21. What is Provided by the Transcontinental Railroad?
    • provides jobs
    • link east with west
    • Omaha to San Francisco
  22. "The Indian Problem"
    as we move west, indians seem to have a hold on many of the lands. we tried to give them land but they were not interested in owning land
  23. Sioux Wars (1854-1891)
    • War between the United States and several of the Sioux tribes.
    • battle of fort Laramie (1868)
    • battle of Little Big Horn (1876)
    • battle at Wounded Knee Massacre (1890)
    • by 1883, the bison are almost completely extinct
  24. John Henry
    • American folk tale character
    • couldn't read or write
    • Freed slave
    • born with hammer in his hand
    • drives more spikes then the machine, but then dies
  25. 3 Reasons Railroads are important
    • Transportation
    • Communication 
    • Energy
    • (moving west ALL depends on Railroads)
  26. Cornelius Vanderbilt
    born end of 19th century. Makes fortune as ferryboat captain. Nickname Commander monopolizing railroad industry. 15 years after purchase, dominates the industry, becomes richest man in 1887
  27. John D. Rockefeller
    • Oil man, refines Oil into Kerosene
    • everyone needs it
    • Monopolizes oil refinery 
    • Creates Standard Oil
    • Creates pipelines
  28. Andrew Carnegie
    • Born in Scotland
    • runner for railroad company
    • keystone bridge company later carnegie steel
    • eventually sells to John Pierpoint Morgan for 467 million dollars
  29. John Pierpoint Morgan
    • Comes from rich family
    • "never spend your own money"
    • powerful, wealthy, and had a business knack
    • later becomes king of railroad
    • merger later becomes GE
    • Bought Carnegie steel for 467 million dollars
  30. Sharecropping
    system of agriculture in which a landowner allows a tenant to use the land in return for a share of the crops produced on the land.
  31. Bourbons
    The redeemers included a rising class of lawyers, merchants, and entrepreneurs who were eager to promote a more diversified economy based upon industrial development and railroad expansion
  32. Mississippi Plan
    set a pattern that seven more states would follow over the next 20 years. 1st a residence requirement, disqualified if convicted of certain crimes, finally all taxes have to be paid for a person to vote
  33. Booker T. Washington
    born in virginia of a slave mother and a white father, fought extreme adversity to get an education. blacks should first establish an economic base for their advancement before striving for social equality
  34. Ida B. Wells
    one of the most outspoken african american activists of the time. after being denied a railroad seat because she was black, she became the first african american to file suit against such discrimination. Wells sustained her commitment to ending racial and gender discrimination
  35. Panning
    A way of sifting Gold nuggets, out of riverbeds
  36. General George A. Custer
    glory seeking officer, led an exploratory expedition into the black hills. miners soon began filtering onto the sioux hunting grounds
  37. Monopoly
    One person, or corporation owns all the competition in the industry
  38. Trusts and Holding Companies
    • Trust- decision making powers for other industries
    • Holding companies- hold unissued stock in a company
  39. Wabash Vs. Illinois
    rail company sues Illinois because they kept hearing complaints from shippers that railroads are charging too much money, and they cannot afford it. Courts agreed with the RR companies B/c Illinois was interfering with rights as an american citizen (corporations are people)
  40. Interstate Commerce
    trading between states, first major regulation of business
  41. Great Railroad Strike Of 1877
    Nationwide railroad workers fought for increase in pay and better conditions and shorter hours
  42. Haymarket Square Riot of 1886
    anarchists blamed for it
  43. Homestead Strike of 1892
    • Carnegie owned 
    • Henry Clay managed it when Carnegie went on vacation
    • Henry goes to crush union
    • workers Barricade the doors of the plant
    • Henry sent army in to break up strike 
    • lasted 3 months
  44. The Pullman Strike of 1894
    • due to cut wages and railroad workers decide not to move any of pullmans rail cars
    • Pullman owners attached their cars to mail cars so railroad workers were violating federal law
    • government sent in the army
  45. Why was Socialism popular?
    better than what people were facing with big cooperations
  46. Jay Gould
    • Prince of the railroad robber barons
    • bought rundown railroads 
    • made improvement on them
    • sold them for profit
    • used cooperate funds for personal investments
    • bribes for politicians and judges
  47. Sears, Roebuck and Company
    • mail order business, the first of its kind
    • anything from groceries to household items
  48. Molly Maguires
    • Irish group
    • motivated by dangerous working conditions in mines
    • wanted to suppress union activity
    • used intimidation, beatings, and killings
  49. Knights of Labor
    • founder is Uriah S. Stevens 
    • creation of the bureaus of labor statistics 
    • wanted 8 hour work day and paper currency 
    • Labor Union
  50. Samuel Gompers
    • head of the american federation of labor striking
    • same ideals as knights of labor
    • wanted to organize skilled workers
  51. American Federation of Labor
    • Focused on economic gains
    • higher wages
    • shorter hours
    • better working conditions 
    • avoided involvement with utopian ideas or politics
  52. Eugene V. Debs
    • founded american railway union 
    • wanted to organize all railroad workers
  53. Industrial Workers of the World
    • included all workers skilled and unskilled
    • roots were in mining and lumber camps in the west
  54. The Four I's for the Rise of cities
    • Industrialization- establishment of the US from agrarian economy to industrial economy (steel, railroads, banking, electricity) 
    • Infrastructure- Where do we put the people when they get here? (tenements)
    • Innovation- Elevators, electricity, sky scrapers, lights, sewer system and plumbing ( Otis invents elevator brake)
    • Immigration- New immigrants from Europe and old immigrants from England (problems between old and new immigrants arose)
  55. The Reform Movement
    • responding to belief that immigrants are making cities worse
    •               * religious organizations (YMCA, SA)
    •               * Do gooders (Red Cross, ASPCA)
    •               * Holistic Reformers 
    •               * Educators 
    •               * Philosophers
    •               * Policy Makers 
    •               * Muckrakers
  56. Jane Adams
    • Formed the Hull House
    • home for woman and children, if husbands not around
  57. Social Darwinism
    Survival of the fittest
  58. Reform Darwinism
    Our responsibility to raise those who are impoverished
  59. Pragmatism
    Things that are true or not true based on if they work
  60. Nativist
    Native born Americans saw the wave of new immigrants as a threat to their way of life and their jobs
  61. Chinese Exclusion Act
    • restrict immigration on the basis of race and class
    • shutting door to Chinese immigrants for 10 years
  62. Frederick Law Olmsted
    • designed central park 
    • designed parks for Boston, Chicago, Philly, and San Fran
  63. Herbert Spencer
    Social Darwinism, Survival of the fittest
  64. William James
    • wrote book Pragmatism
    • focused on the ideas of evolution
  65. John Dewey
    • Chief philosopher of Pragmatism 
    • ideas were interments for actions
    • education=progress toward economic democracy
  66. Mark Twain
    • Wrote Huckleberry Finn and the Adventures of Tom Sawyer.
    • wrote about fictional characters lives during the end of the 19 century
    • "Age covered in Gold"
    • Cover for corruption
  67. `Social Gospel
    • Organized Charity 
    • didn't want anything to do with social darwinism
  68. Amusements
    • Performances
    • Saloons 
    • Political Clubs
    • Boardwalks 
    • Vaudeville
    • Theater
    • Tennis and Croquet 
    • Bicycle riding
  69. Thomas Nast
    • Muckraker, father of the american political cartoon
    • Harpers Weekly
    • Sant Clause, Uncle Sam, Columbia, and republican and democrat symbol
    • wanted equality towards african americans, woman, children, the poor, catholics, Chinese.
  70. Muckrakers
    refers to reform-minded journalists who wrote largely for popular magazines, continued a tradition of investigative journalism reporting, and emerged in the United States after 1900 and continued to be influential until World War I, when through a combination of advertising boycotts, dirty tricks and patriotism, the movement, associated with the Progressive Era in the United States, came to an end.
  71. Tammany Hall
    • a clubhouse for new york political machine
    • few people who gained power in an area through the public 
    • destroying america
  72. Boss Tweed
    • Traded votes for favors 
    • "the irish"
    • trade favors with other politicians
    • #1 target for Nast
    • more jobs equals more votes
    • bribed people jobs to get votes
    • Most famous boss of tammany hall
  73. The Election of 1880
    • James Garfield (R) defeats Winfield Scott Hancock (D)
    • Garfield assassinated and then Chester A. Arthur (R) becomes president
  74. The Election of 1884
    • Grover Cleveland (D) defeats James G. Blaine (R)
    • Cleveland lowers the tariff
  75. Republicans/Democrats view on Tariffs
    Republicans want to raise tariff (to promote American Goods) Democrats want to Lower tariff ( to promote competition)
  76. Tariff
    Tax on imported goods
  77. The Election of 1888
    • Benjamin H. Harrison (R) defeats Grover Cleveland (D)
    • raised the tariff 
    • burned through money
  78. The Election of 1892
    Harrison's spending wasted all of the 100 million dollar surplus Cleveland had left him so they re elected Cleveland ( only president to be elected to non consecutive terms)
  79. Gilded Age
    • age of widespread political corruption and cooperate greed.
    • "Age covered in Gold"- Mark Twain
  80. "City Machines"
    used patronage and favoritism to keep the loyalty of business supporters while providing jobs or food or fuel to working class voters who have fallen on hard times
  81. Stalwarts
    • supported president Grant during the misbehavior of his cabinet members
    • promoted radical reconstruction of the south and the spoils system of distributing federal political jobs to party loyalists
  82. Mugwumps
    • good government crowd who ignored partisan realities
    • centered in large cities and major universities
    • opposed tariffs and wanted free trade
    • wanted to nominate Grover Cleveland
  83. Granger Movement
    • started as social and educational response to the famers isolation
    • promoted farmer owned cooperatives for buying and selling crops 
    • try to push for better treatment by large cooperations 
    • led to Wabash V. Illinois
    • Small individual groups 
    • community based
  84. Farmers Alliance
    • started in Texas 
    • Large group 
    • Wanted access to more dollars (gold and silver)
    • no political power but became very popular
    • organized social and recreational activities
  85. Populist / Peoples Party
    • successful
    • good group organizing and rallies to gain political power.
    • Not "too" powerful. became very popular 
    • political philosophy urging social and political system change that favors "the people" over "the elites", or favors the common people over the rich and wealthy business owners
  86. Mary Elizabeth Lease
    • Kanses's first female lawyer 
    • fought for woman's suffrage
    • public speaker in the farm protest movement
  87. Coxey's Army
    • Led by Jacob S. Coxey 
    • demanded federal Govt provide the unemployed with meaningful work 
    • protested in washington, and Coxey was arrested for walking on the grass
  88. William Jennings Bryan
    • Cross of gold speech 
    • Populist candiate for President in 1896
    • trickle down economics- money goes from wealthy to poor
    • Democrat
    • wanted free silver
  89. "cross of gold" speech
    • one of the most famous speeches in american history 
    • In the address, Bryan supported bimetallism or "free silver", which he believed would bring the nation prosperity. He decried the gold standard, concluding the speech, "you shall not crucify mankind upon a cross of gold".Bryan's address helped catapult him to the Democratic Party's presidential nomination; it is considered one of the greatest political speeches in American history.
  90. William Mckinley
    • Republican 
    • election of 1896
    • gold standard platform
    • wins presidency
    • wanted to raise tariffs
    • dingly tariff- the highest tariff ever
    • end to silver movement
    • elected by captains of industry 
    • shot and assassinated in 1901
  91. Reason for American Imperialism
    • Industrialization- more places to sell our goods 
    • Prosperity-continue in growth
    • Muscle Flexing- were "big shots"
    • Empire of the west- secure borders of america 
    • Spread democracy and christianity
  92. Manifest Destiny
    Its the United States right to bring "civilization" to the world through democracy and christianity
  93. Why Boom and Bust Economic cycles need stability?
    • Having more markets increases your chance of finding stability somewhere
    • more market stability means foreign markets 
    • having foreign markets means protecting them (US Navy)
  94. Why did we purchase Alaska, Panama and Midway Island?
    • Alaska had oil
    • Panama needed to build panama canal
    • Midway island is in ideal position for protecting hawaii
  95. Hawaii
    • strategic island, and had alot of sugar cane 
    • had to pay taxes on sugar cane, so if annexed by US didn't have to pay taxes. so US overthrew the queen
  96. Cuba
    • Territory of Spain
    • Had sugar cane farms 
    • Cleveland decides to support the rebels in Spanish-American war.
  97. Philippines
    • a stones throw from china
    • territory of Spain 
    • Philippine-American war 
    • ends with america taking control because they destroy spanish fleet on manilla bay
  98. Puerto Rico
    • Treaty of Paris ends Spanish-American War 
    • gained it from that treaty
  99. China
    • Ultimate Prize
    • has resources, lands, and millions of people waiting to buy foreign goods
    • Great Britain and France the old empire, wanted china 
    • Germany, Russia, and US, new empires that wanted china
    • Japan takes china in the Sino Japanese war
  100. Open Door Policy
    • With China, But they had no say
    • claim parts of china 
    • with no enforcement powers 
    • Japan recognizes no one will stop them, so they take Korea
  101. Big Stick Policy
    • Teddy Roosevelt 
    • said we can get involved in anything in the western hemisphere
    • "be forceful when you have to"
  102. Panama Canal
    • Colonies revolt against Columbia 
    • becomes independent 
    • leads America to build Panama Canal 
    • Moving Navy easy
  103. Why did the US go for smaller countries?
    • They were strategically located 
    • we did not want to own them and administer these countries
    • instead, we wanted them to do anything we said 
    • we wanted all countries to be democratic and capitalist
  104. Alfred Thayer Mahan's "The Influence of sea power upon History" (1660-1783)
    • Captain Mahan was leading advocate of sea power and western imperialism
    • published "the influence of sea power upon history"
    • powerful navy, foreign commerce, colonies, and naval bases 
    • wanted control of the Caribbean
  105. Theodore Roosevelt
    • Assistant secretary of the US Navy 
    • Ordered a copy of Mahan's book for every american ship
    • Vice President to Mckinley 
    • Becomes President after Mckinley's death
    • a nightmare for Rockefeller
    • Youngest President 
    • Assemblyman, civil service commissioner, assistant secretary of the navy, and rough rider in Spanish-American War
    • believes in balance with big businesses and labor 
    • breaks up monopolies (trust Buster) his job to step in 
    • bad monopolies should go, good one should stay
  106. Queen Liluokalini
    • tried to eliminate white control of the government 
    • queen of Hawaii 
    • was overtaken by US
  107. William Randolph Hearst's New York Journal, and Joseph Pulitzers New York World 
    Yellow Journalism-exaggerating the headlines
  108. de Lôme Letter
    • New York Journal released letter from the spanish ambassador de Lôme 
    • called president Mckinley weak
    • 6 days later, the Maine Exploded and sank in the Havana Harbor
  109. Teller Amendment
    Disclaimed any US designs on cuban territory
  110. George Dewey
    destroyed and captured all the spanish war ships in Manilla bay
  111. Emilio Aguinaldo
    dewey had brought him back from exile to make trouble for the spanish and declare the Philippines independent
  112. Rough Riders
    • First volunteer calvary and Theodore Roosevelt was the first Lieutenant
    • they seized Kettle Hill
    • Trained for Spanish-American War
    • Only ones to see action
  113. Dr. Walter Reed
    • outstanding contribution to health in tropical climates around the world
    • head of the army yellow fever commission
    • proved yellow fever was carried by mosquitoes
  114. Roosevelt Corollary to the Monroe Doctrine
    monroe doctrine prohibited intervention in the Caribbean region by europeans and the united states was justified and intervening first to stall involvement by outsiders
  115. The Progressive Era
    was a period of social activism and political reform in the United States that flourished from the 1890s to the 1920s. One main goal of the Progressive movement was purification of government, as Progressives tried to eliminate corruption by exposing and undercutting political machines and bosses
  116. Triangle Shirtwaist Factory Fire (1911)
    • Company in Greenich Village 
    • Fire broke out on the 8 floor
    • run by 2 russian immigrants
    • they evacuated, but they did not evacuate floors
    • doors were locked to prevent theft
    • Many children and woman were killed
  117. Progressives
    • large scale social and institutional changes 
    • not republican or democrat 
    • Changes in employment, education, and government
  118. Henry Ford
    • Doubled Wages and cut hours
    • led to greater production 
    • Model T
    • perfected the assembly line 
    • wanted workers to afford what they built
  119. Jacob Riis
    • Social activist, writer, and photographer
    • popularized photography by taking pictures of tenement buildings
    • showed how the poor lived in his book "how the other half lives"
  120. Louis Wickes Hine
    • national child labor committee
    • took pictures of child laborers
    • putting things in the public eye causes change
  121. Democracy
    people elect representatives to vote on their behalf
  122. Robert M Lafoullette
    • "fighting bob"
    • Progressive party
    • governor of Wisconsin
    • came up with Wisconsin Idea
  123. Wisconsin Idea
    • Wanted to make Universities more efficient
    • initiative-suggest changes to law 
    • Referendum-voting 
    • Recall-elected representative not doing what you want so you can vote to kick them out
  124. The Square Deal
    • Theodore Roosevelt 
    • conservation, control of cooperations, and consumer protection
    • when in doubt, wield federal power
    • conscious of conduct
  125. More of Roosevelt's Acts
    • Expediting act (1903)
    • Elkins Act (1903)
    • Hepburn act (1906)
    • pure food and drug act (1906)
    • Meat inspection (1906) 
    • National Forest Service (1905)
    • forest homestead act (1906)
    • Five national parks (1901-1909)
  126. William Howard Taft
    • Theodore Roosevelt thinks Taft can carry out rest of his plans 
    • dislikes trusts 
    • did not understand difference between good and bad monopolies
    • safety standards for minors and railroad workers
    • children's Bureau, 8 hour workday for federal employees
    • Graduate income tax (1913)
    • Biggest mistake was firing the president of conservation
  127. Teddy Runs again! (1912)
    • forms the Bull Moose party (progressive)
    • Woodrow wilson(D) wins the election because taft and Teddy split their votes
  128. Woodrow Wilson
    • New freedom 
    • wanted to foster competition
    • lowered tariff (D)
    • low interest loans to farmers 
    • federal reserve act (1913)- created 12 banking areas in the US
    • Federal Trade Commission act (1914)- issued seise and assist orders to large corporations
    • Clayton Anti Trust act (1914)- seeking to prevent anticompetitive practices in their incipiency
    • Was Christian Moralist 
    • Believed in Capitalism and American Democracy 
    • Believed in Manifest Destiny 
    • Wanted US as center of the New World economically 
    • wanted peace without victory and US would dictate the end of the war
    • At treaty of Versailles delivers his 14 points idea
  129. Progressive Victories
    • Increased Productivity 
    • Great for Big business's 
    • 8 hour work day 
    • child labor laws 
    • public ownership of utilities 
    • 17 Amendment-direct election of senators
    • 16 Amendment-Graduated income tax 
    • 18 Amendment-Prohibition 
    • 19 Amendment-womans suffrage
  130. Taylorism
    • Fredrick W Taylor
    • Efficiency expert 
    • wrote "the principles of scientific management" 
    • wanted to reduce waste through the scientific analysis of labor processes 
    • each worker would perform a task
  131. Social Justice
    promotion of private charities, sanitation, personal hygiene, sewers, regulating child labor, and the consumption of alcohol
  132. Florence Kelly
    • Head of national consumers league
    • promoted state laws to regulate the long working hours imposed on woman who were wives and mothers
  133. Gifford Pinchot
    • Head of the division of forestry
    • management of natural resources to serve the public interest
  134. New Nationalism
    • Through Roosevelt 
    • new federal regulatory laws 
    • social welfare program 
    • new measures of direct democracy 
    • old populist demands for the initiative recall and referendum at the federal level
    • wanted to save the political system from the threat of revolution
  135. Bull Moose Party
    • Formed by Theodore Roosevelt 
    • to compete with republicans and democrats so he can run against taft who was running for the republicans
    • ended up splitting votes with Taft, so Woodrow Wilson (D) won.
  136. New Freedom
    constituted the reforms promoted by Wilson. They called for less government, but in practice as president he added new controls such as the Federal Reserve System and the Clayton Antitrust Act. More generally the "New Freedom" is associated with Wilson's first term as president (1913-1917). As President, Wilson focused on three types of reform
  137. Texas
    • 1820s- anglos begin to inhabit texas 
    • disputes betweens anglos and the mexicans b/c mexico wanted to outlaw wanted to outlaw slavery but texas didn't b/c they has saves 
    • 1836-War for texan independence 
    •         * battle for the Alamo
    •         * battle of San Jacinto
    • Ends hostility and texas declares independence
    • 1845- US annexes Texas, makes mexicans mad, leads to Mexican American war
  138. Battle of the Alamo
    was a pivotal event in the Texas Revolution. Following a 13-day siege, Mexican troops under President General Antonio López de Santa Anna launched an assault on the Alamo Mission nearSan Antonio de Béxar (modern-day San Antonio, Texas, United States). All of the Texian defenders were killed. Santa Anna's perceived cruelty during the battle inspired many Texians—both Texas settlers and adventurers from the United States—to join the Texian Army. Buoyed by a desire for revenge, the Texians defeated the Mexican Army at the Battle of San Jacinto, on April 21, 1836, ending the revolution.
  139. Battle of San Jacinto
    n present-day Harris County, Texas, was the decisive battle of theTexas Revolution. Led by General Sam Houston, the Texian Army engaged and defeated General Antonio López de Santa Anna's Mexican army in a fight that lasted just 18 minutes. About 630 of the Mexican soldiers were killed and 730 captured, while only nine Texans died
  140. Treaty of Guadalupe Hildago
    • Ends Mexican-Amercian War
    • US pays Mexico 15 million 
    • US assume debts of the Anglos to the mexicans 
    • Rio Grande is border of texas and mexico 
    • Mexico gives up Alto California 
    • You could go mexico, or stay in US and become american citizen automatically
  141. Causes of WWI
    • Growth of nationalism across Europe 
    • Shifting balance of power in Europe 
    • Unresolved territorial disputes 
    • misperception of intent 
    • decades long arms race 
    • prior military planning 
    • fragmented governance
    • Economic/Military/imperial rivalries
  142. Central Powers
    Austria-Hungary, Germany and Italy
  143. Allied Powers
    • France, Russia, and Great Britain
    • later US
  144. Italy
    First they were on central powers side, later will join the allied powers
  145. Serbia
    • Allies to Austria-Hungary and Russia
    • Assassinated Arch Duke Ferdinand and his wife of Austria-Hungary in 1914
    • b/c serbia wanted to have its own independence
  146. Who's Declaring WAR?
    • Austria-Hungary declared war on Serbia 
    • Russia declared war on Germany 
    • Germany declared war on France 
    • Great Britain declared war on Germany
  147. Advancements In WWI
    • trench warfare 
    • Tanks 
    • Submarines 
    • Chemical Warfare
    • machine guns
    • grenades 
    • flame throwers
  148. Neutrality
    • US was open to trading with all countries 
    • Great Britain set up trade blockade in the North Sea b/c they didn't want Germany to trade with the US 
    • Led to sinking of U boats by Germany 
    • Sinking of Lusitania (british passenger liner, with some Americans on board)
    • we ask Germany to stop using Submarine Warfare which led to Unrestricted free warfare
  149. Election of 1916
    • Wilson(D) Vs Hughes(R)
    • Wilson wins b/c promised to keep us out of war
    • Doubles size of the army, and makes the largest navy in the world at that time
  150. Zimmerman Telegraph
    • British Intercept the Zimmerman telegraph to the Mexican Government 
    • It said Germany would give back Texas and other territories after the US entered the war, and mexico would attack the US
  151. Russia
    The Russian people overthrow Sir Nicholas and instal Communism
  152. US enters the war
    in April 1917, Wilson asks congress to declare war on Germany
  153. Propaganda
    • A media campaign to convince people to follow path 
    • (food will win the war)
    • Victory Gardens etc..
  154. War Industries Board
    Coordination of war purchasing supplies
  155. Selective Service act of 1917
    Draft of 1 million soldiers to win the war
  156. Espionage Act of 1917
    Illegal to do things that interfere with war effort
  157. Sedition Act of 1918
    Illegal to speak against the war effort
  158. National War Labor Board
    mediate disputes between employers and laborers to make sure there is no delays in production of war products
  159. Schenck Vs. United States
    Schenck was convicted of handing out pamphlets to deny the draft
  160. Clear and Present Danger
    • Falsely shouting fire in a theater and causing a riot
    • free speech with responsibility
  161. Treaty Of Versailles (1918)
    • Ends WWI
    • Blamed Germany for starting the war 
    • Made Germany pay Reparations for war damage
  162. Woodrow Wilson's 14 Points (1919)
    • At Paris Peace Conference
    • Wilson's idea to end war issues safely
    • open democracy 
    • free seas/trade
    • reduce military forces 
    • League Of Nations
    • Restoration of lands and territorial fixes
  163. Allies Complaints
    • Wanted to Punish Germany 
    • already divided up central powers territories amongst themselves 
    • wanted additional new colonies and wanted other available resources and holdings
  164. Paris Peace Conference (1919)
    • George(Britain)
    • Orlando(Italy)
    • Wilson(US)
    • Clemenceau(France)
    • Come together to hammer out end of war
    • 4 new countries- Yugoslavia, Hungary, Czechoslovakia, and Austria 
    • France had ruling authority over Lebanon and Syria
    • Great Britain had ruling authority over Palestine, Jordan, and Mesopotamia (countries of Oil)
    • Germanys islands in the pacific and one province in china go to Japan
  165. Japan
    • Were on the Allied side
    • Provided naval assistance 
    • wanted equality among races, rejected by the League of Nations 
    • discouraged Japanese into a period of Nationalism and they were wary with cooperation in the west
  166. Henry Cabot Lodge
    • Was wilson's rival
    • did not like the 14 points, League of Nations, and he felt we didn't have to ask another country to do something
  167. Did US join the League of Nations?
    • Nope, and we ended up signing a different treaty to end the war
    • Wilson failed in Ideas 
    • LON was a precursor to the Unites Nation
  168. Fundamentalism
    • US becomes isolated from global community and focuses on Problems at home
    • Religious fundamentalism kicks in during the Scopes trial
  169. What happens in Europe that Scares the US?
    Anarchism, Socialism, Communism, Labor militancy, radicalism, Atheism
  170. Things that are good, Except in taken too far?
    Nationalism, Isolationism, Patriotism, Fear, Fundamentalism, Jingoism- aggressive foreign policy
  171. Bombing Campaigns
    • J.D Rockefeller and US Attorney General A. Mitchell Palmer organize a network of communism in government 
    • Palmer raids- attacks on people who are communist, socialist, and anarchist 
    • No warrants 
    • aliens deported
    • violation of civil rights and liberties
  172. Red Scare (1919-1921)
    • Fear against Communism 
    • "Red Scare" was "a nation-wide anti-radical hysteria provoked by a mounting fear and anxiety that a Bolshevik revolution in America was imminent—a revolution that would change Church, home, marriage, civility, and the American way of Life.
  173. Nicola Sacco and Bartolomeo Vanzetti
    • Italian Immigrants with 2 robberies in question
    • in MA, a shoe company owner and a guard who was going to the bank, was shot and killed by 2 men 
    • people claimed it was done by 2 Italian men
    • after robbery, mechanic claimed that he had the car the two men were just using
    • Sacco and Vanzetti lied about everything and have guns on then when their caught
    • Judge was anti italian
    • found guilty
    • 2nd trial b/c argued they didn't have a fair trial and no one actually saw them do it 
    • found guilty again and executed
  174. David C. Stephenson (1925)
    • The grand dragon of Indiana KKK
    • Evans (leader of KKK) does not like Stephenson so he kicks him out and goes into new branch of the Klan that launches an investigation on David C. Stephenson and kicked out of KKK for good 
    • Rumors he was a drunk and a womanizer 
    • Stephenson tries to get his friend Jackson as governor in hopes of becoming a representative of Indiana 
    • David Meets a woman and offers her a job on his book
    • one day calls her over and says she is going to Chicago with him 
    • Gets her drunk and once their on a train he savages/chews her
    • She kills herself 
    • Sentenced to life in prison and tries to get jackson to pardon his crime, but doesn't so David gets back at Jackson and publishes the names of KKK members in the newspaper
  175. KKK (Ku Klux Klan)
    • Begins in the 1860s lasts for 10 years 
    • reinstalled hierarchy between blacks and whites 
    • reappears in 1915 in north urban areas 
    • Anti immigration, anti catholicism, Anti rich, Anti Drink, for womanhood
  176. John Scopes (1925)
    • Religious fundamentalism
    • Butler act- illegal in schools to teach evolution if received by public funds
    • Progressive reform act 
    • he was a football coach who was told to teach a day of biology and that commenced the lawsuits William Jennings Bryan was lawyer for Prosecution, Clarence Darrow defended Scopes 
    • Bryan testified as expert on the bible and Darrow Testified as expert for science 
    • Juge won't allow Darrow 
    • Scopes found Guilty and fined 100 dollars 
    • never went to supreme court 
    • as long as scopes didn't do anything for a year
    • they would pretend that it never happened
  177. Francisco "Poncho" Villa
    • Gang of bandits 
    • 1916 Villa and his men seized a train and murdered 16 american mining engineers in a deliberate attempt to trigger US intervention, discredit Carranza, and built himself up as an opponent of the gringos 
    • failed to cross border on raids into texas and new mexico 
    • March 9 entered columbus, New mexico, and burned the town, and killed 17 americans
  178. John J. Pershing
    • went across mexican border with 11 thousand soldiers and mobilized 150 thousand national guardsmen
    • his troops chased Villa through northern mexico and had no luck and were ordered home in 1917
    • Carrenza pressed his own war against villa and his bandits and in 1917 put through a new liberal constitution
  179. Dollar Diplomacy
    is the effort of the United States—particularly under President William Howard Taft—to further its aims in Latin America and East Asia through use of its economic power by guaranteeing loans made to foreign countries
  180. Bolsheviks
    • led by Vladimir Lenin 
    • seized power in Russia and established Communism
  181. Food Administration
    • headed by Hoover 
    • to raise agriculture production while reducing civilian consumption of food stuffs 
    • "food will win the war"
  182. George Creel
    • organized a propaganda machine to convey the allies war aims to the people and above all the enemy where it might help stop their morale 
    • gathered journalists, photographers, artists, and entertainers to help his purpose
  183. committee of public information
    • established by president Wilson 
    • composed of secretaries of state, war and navy
    • Head was George Creel
  184. The Western front
    Read in book page 1004
  185. Reparations
    Paying back for war damages
  186. The Spanish Flu
    • Produced more casualties than the war itself 
    • spread around the globe 
    • started spring of 1918 and lasted a year 
    • killed 22 million people worldwide 
    • Americans returning from france brought the flu back with them and it raced through army camps and naval bases
  187. The Roaring 20's
    • The Roaring Twenties is a term sometimes used to refer to the 1920s, characterizing the decade's distinctive cultural edge in New York City, Chicago, Paris, Berlin, London, and many other major cities during a period of sustained economic prosperity.
    • people were spending and spending and not saving 
    • eventually this reckless spending leads to the great depression
  188. Prohibition
    • Banning of alcohol 18th amendment
    • bound to be passed, destined to fail
  189. Moral Vs. Political
    • Moral-harms families people were less responsible, not going to church, making saloon center of family
    • Political-Saloon is damaging to government trade, gambling and politicians
  190. Moralists
    • Prohibition was doomed from the beginning 
    • nativists feared that immigrant cultures had strong history of drinking 
    • federal government has relatively weak enforcement powers
    • federal government has few available agents 
    • government tries not to meddle in private lives if possible 
    • many lawmakers and citizens opposed it
  191. Woman's Christian Temperance Union (WCTU)
    • moralists organization 
    • culturally damaging US as a whole
  192. ASL
    Harming the way we do business and the electoral college
  193. Organized Crime
    • Increases
    • Alcohol came from Canada and the Caribbean
    • prostitution, speakeasies, loan sharking, More integrating of black and whites
  194. New Deal
    • Franklin D Roosevelt
    • Relief- stop bleeding 
    • Recovery- fix it 
    • Reform- make sure it never happens again
    • Alphabet Soup Symbol
  195. Causes of the Great Depression
    • imbalance in the distributuion of wealth
    • speculative corporate structures and leverage in trading
    • foreign trade imbalance
    • stupid economic advice
    • independent banks fail
  196. Election of 1932
    • Herbert Hoover v. Franklin D Roosevelt
    • Roosevelt wins
    • main issue of debate was the economy
  197. Franklin D Roosevelt
    • Cousin of Teddy Roosevelt
    • aristocratic-wealthy, well educated
    • "Fireside Chats" -FDR went on the radio and told people what the state of the economy was and how he was dealing with it and how it was going to affect the citizens of America
  198. First 100 Days
    • Roosevelt signs everything that passes on his desk
    • the president is judged on the first 100 days in office
  199. Relief
    • Bank Holiday- closes banks and reopens them in a few days, to ensure when you go to the bank to withdraw your money that you will get all of it back
    • Civilian Conservation Corps- men from ages 18-25 sent to work
  200. Recovery
    • Abandonment of Gold Standard- set new value of gold, people were trading cash for gold and the gold supply was decreasing and the government stopped this
    • Anyone who had 100 dollars worth of gold had to give it to the government and in return the person would get $20.67
    • Now the government has all the gold and raises the price of gold to $35
    • They could release cash into the economy because it was backed up with gold
    • Crime to own gold
    • Home Owners Loan Corporation (HOLC)- Stability in the economy
    • fix, repair and morgage homes
    • Agricultural Adjustment Act- there was too much food and so the prices on food decreased
    • the government gives money to the farmers not to plow their lands and to kill their cattle
    • gave more money to farmers
    • National Recovery Agency- watched for fair working conditions
    • Smooth out issues between employers and employees
    • Headed by Hugh S Johnson 
    • 40 hour work week and weekly wages of $13
  201. Reform
    • Wagner Act- National Labor Relations Board
    • Set wages, hours, and working standards 
    • Example: You are not allowed to work until you become the age of 16
    • mediator between employers and employees
    • Federal Reserve System- FDIC-gaurentees that you will get your deposit in your bank account of $2,500 or less if you want to take it out of the bank
    • Glass-Stegal Act- seperates business of banking
    • Can't have deposits and investing in the same insitutions
    • Securities Exchange Comission- rules and regulations for the stock market
  202. Tennessee Valley Authority
    • Poor, rural, isolated, and was lagging behind in technology from the rest of the country
    • Built 20 dams to control flooding which created hydro electric power
    • It increased agricultural production and jobs
    • Low cost housing and reforestation
  203. Social Security
    • Start of the welfare state
    • Taxes from your payroll to help save for when your older
    • At a certain age you can begin to take some of that money
  204. Work's Progress Administration
    Building projects, schools, highways, playgrounds, bridges, etc.
  205. Theater
    • There was opportunity for different races
    • Living News Papers- Plays about American pride, it was used to invest into American Culture
  206. Music
    • Bands, concerts, orchestras, music classes
    • Study of Creole, Negro, Cowboy and southern music
  207. Art
    Promoted civic and national pride in America
  208. Writers
    • Examples: Steinbeck, Wright
    • Wrote essays, interviews and fictions of American exceptionalism
    • Paid people to create American guides which would bring people to your state which would also bring money and help the economy
    • Folklore Project- Slave Narratives
    • Negro Studies Project
    • Slave Narrative Project
    • The main purpose was to protect American Culture
  209. Alan Lomax
    • Saves music for us
    • He invented an on the spot recording device that sat in the back of his car
    • He went all over the country to search out the poor, rich, blacks, farmers, and religous people
    • He wanted all the songs he could get
  210. Federal Art Projects
    • Health and Civic posters
    • Covers for American guides
  211. Diego Rivera
    • Mexican Communist
    • Painted murals on public walls
    • Most famous was "The Man and the Machine"
  212. Dorothea Lange
    Documented Southern farmers and the Dust Bowl through pictures
  213. Ben Shahn
    Documented black migration to the north (mostly musicians)
  214. James Agee and Walter Evan
    • Wrote a magazine article that included pictures
    • It was a Magazine article on the conditions among sharecropper families in the American South during the Dust Bowl
    • "Let us now Praise Famous Men"
  215. Election of 1936
    • Franklin D Roosevelt elected again
    • He wanted a balanced budget and not go into debt
    • His greatest failing was his idea of packing the supreme court, (Court Packing System) if one justice did not retire after a certain age then a new person would be put into the supreme court
  216. Legacy of New Deal
    • Relief-stopped beeding
    • Reform- reformed government and made it larger and more powerful
    • Recovery- argument that FDR did not spend enough money
  217. Comic books
    • Superman-symbolized that the government is powerful and can do anything and will save you
    • Batman-symbolized a regular person who works hard to improve himself and when a problem arises he will fix it himself
  218. Twenty First Amendment
    Repealed the Eighteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution, which had mandated nationwide Prohibition on alcohol
  219. Dust Bowl
    • Dust storms destroyed crops
    • Winds swept across treeless plains, scooping up millions of tons of parched topsoil into dark clouds that floated east across states, engulfing farms and towns 
    • Lead to growth in California because of people moving from the dust bowl regions
  220. Eleanor Roosevelt
    • Theodore Roosevelts wife 
    • Embraced social service and showed concern for the rights of women and blacks 
    • She was the first woman to address a national political convention, write a nationally syndicated column, and to hold regular peace conferences
    • Went across the nation representing the New Deal
    • Meet with African American leaders, supporting women's and labor causes, highlighting unemployed youth, and imploring people to live up to their egalitarian and humanitarian ideals
  221. The New Woman
    • became involved in the new culture of the 1920's
    • New attitude, new clothes, new hairstyles
    • began to smoke and drink, drive automobiles 
    • Woman's suffrage 19th amendment- passed in 1920
  222. The New Negro
    • Develops between 1915-1925
    • Black man moved from agricultural areas to cities making products for war 
    • Harlem Renaissance- between southern blacks and northern blacks 
    • Part of a larger collective 
    • artists(musicians, painters, poets, social citizens, begin to take look at racial identity)
  223. W.E.B Dubois
    • wrote " the souls of the black folk"
    • was an American sociologist, historian, civil rights activist, Pan-Africanist, author and editor. Born in Great Barrington, Massachusetts, Du Bois grew up in a relatively tolerant and integrated community. After graduating from Harvard, where he was the first African American to earn a doctorate
    • A fierce advocate for black education. first african american to earn a doctorate from Harvard (in history) American to earn a doctorate, he became a professor of history, sociology and economics at Atlanta University. Du Bois was one of the co-founders of the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP) in 1909.
  224. The Harlem Renaissance
    • At the time, it was known as the "New Negro Movement", named after the 1925 anthology by Alain Locke. The Movement also encompassed the new African-American cultural expressions across the urban areas in the Northeast and Midwest United States effected by the Great Migration (African American),of which Harlem was the largest
    • Many Great Artists, poets, and social critics)
  225. Themes for the Blacks in the 1920's
    • "two-ness"- am i american or african american or both
    • Alienation-being separated and segregated 
    • Marginality
    • Cultural pride
    • Folk art (huge today) 
    • Jazz and blues (Nicholas Bros, Billie Holiday)
    • Writing to elite audiences 
    • Clubs and Places to meet ( Cotton Club, Apollo)
  226. Election of 1920
    • Republican Warren G. Harding wins with a landslide victory over Democrat James M. Cox
    • Harding is President until 1923 when he drops dead and Vice President Calvin Coolidge
  227. Warren G. Harding
    • Not a very good president
    • Pro-buisnnes 
    • thinks its good to lower taxes on the wealthy
    • raises tariff
    • progressive on race (against the KKK)
    • 1923 drops dead
  228. Calvin Coolidge
    • nicknamed "Silent Cal"
    • Hands off with business
    • very pro- Business 
    • reelected in 1924
  229. War Debts (Germany)
    • Mostly reparations
    • 33 Bilion dollars worth of war debts 
    • France since not getting their money, wants to take parts of Germany
    • Germany mass prints money causing deflation
    • U.S makes loans to Germany, so they can give money to France and GB, so they can pay back the U.S for their war loans
  230. Scramble to Spend
    • Wages increased, and Savings Decreased 
    • 1929- Personal Debt increases 250% to what it was at the beginning of the century 
    • mass production of consumer goods
  231. Henry Ford
    • perfects the automobile and the assembly line 
    • drops work hours from 60 to 40 hours a week 
    • doubles pay, and profits double 
    • holds americanization classes for his workers 
    • in 1914 the model T was $845
    • in 1925 dropped to $290
  232. Nativism
    • with end of WW1 race riots and fear of Communism ushered in a wave of virulent Nativism 
    • many laws passed to limit immigration bc of fear of communism
  233. "Scarface" Al Capone
    • most celebrated gangster of the prohibition age
    • his Chicago based bootlegging, prostitution, and gambling empire brought him an income of roughly $60 million, we he flaunted on expensive suits and silk pajamas
    • also had a bullet proof cadillac, and entourage of body guards, and lavish support for city charities
  234. Margaret Sanger
    birth control activist opened the nations first family- planning clinic in Brooklyn in 1916
  235. Sigmund Freud
    • the Viennese father of psychoanalysis 
    • when he visited Clark University in MA, surprised to find himself so well known "even in prudish america"
  236. Alice Paul
    • a quaker social worker 
    • became the head of the congressional committee of the National American woman suffrage association (NAWSA)
  237. Carrie Chapman Catt
    echoed the fears of many middle- and upper-class urban dwellers when she warned about the danger that "lies in the votes possessed by the males in the slums of the cities, and the ignorant foreign vote"
  238. 19 Amendment
    • prohibits any United States citizen from being denied the right to vote on the basis of sex. It was ratified on August 18, 1920.
    • Susan B. Anthony and Elizabeth Cady Stanton drafted the amendment and first introduced it in 1878; it was forty-one years later, in 1919, when the Congress submitted the amendment to the states for ratification
  239. Marcus Garvey
    was the founder of the Universal Negro improvement association and a leading spokesman for "negro nationalism" in the 1920's
  240. Modernism
    • trend of thought that affirms the power of human beings to create, improve, and reshape their environment, with the aid of scientific knowledge, technology and practical experimentation, and is thus in its essence both progressive and optimistic. American modernism is an artistic and cultural movement in the United States starting at the turn of the 20th century with its core period between World War I and World War II
    • Albert Einstein was one of these modernists
  241. United states after WWI
    • people in Europe begin to get higher wages
    • U.S becomes Isolationists 
    • Prices rise in Europe since cant get goods over their with heightened tariff 
    • they begin to enact their own trade barriers 
    • 1918-world leadership offered by unanimous consent to U.S, U.S declines the offer
    • Never joined the League of Nations
    • U.S not helping in Europe 
    • borrowing before war meant infrastructure 
    • borrowing during ware meant for guns, food, supplies, war debts)
  242. Election of 1928
    • Herbert Hoover(R) vs. Al Smith (D)
    • Hoover wins, becomes president
  243. Herbert Hoover
    • Becomes President in 1929
    • Hands off with people (rugged individualism- american spirt pick yourselves up and work it out yourself)
    • hands on with business
  244. The Stock Market
    • open to everyone 
    • Investors Vs. Speculators
    • Investors had the ability to be without money for a while (wealthy)
  245. Pool Stocks
    • bunch of investors who get together (knowledge of market, have cash), put their money together and buy 1 stock at a very low price 
    • price for stock goes up, and they pull out when it gets high enough to make a large profit by selling
  246. Investor
    Betting on overall health and performance of a company over time
  247. Speculators
    bet on how public will respond to changes in price
  248. Oct 29, 1929
    Panic on the market, leads to the great depression
  249. Federal Reserve system
    can regulate currency, issue orders to banks to stop lending speculators money
  250. Hoover responds...sort of
    • he asks employers to hold wages 
    • he asks states to invest in infrastructure
    • he asks industry leaders to plan for ways to avoid further problems 
  251. Hunker down Vs. Extend Credit
    • Hoover had to choose between hunkering down- do nothing, and waiting for it to pass, or extending credit to people to help the economy get back on track
    • Hoover chooses to Hunker Down 
    • 20% of banks close within a 4 year span!
    • Hawley- Smoot tariff act- raised the tariff
    • and in Europe they raised the tariff, making it difficult for european goods to get here, and for U.S goods to get there
    • global trade drops 20%
  252. Unemployment
    • 1930- 9%
    • 1931- 16%
    • 1932- 21%
  253. Huey Long
    • "The Kingfish"
    • Louisiana governor
    • Delivered tax favors, roads, schools, free text books, charity hospitals and better public services
    • Shrewd lawyer and politician  
    • He supported The New Deal but herewith suspicious of the NRAs collusion with big business
    • He had grown jealous of Roosevelt and his popularity
  254. Share-the-Wealth program
    • Longs plan of dealing with the Great Depression 
    • He wanted to confiscate large personal fortunes and to guarantee every poor family a cash grant of 5,000 dollars and every worker an annual income of 2,500 dollars 
    • Provide pensions, reduce working hours, pay veterans bonuses, and ensure a college education for every qualified student
  255. Keynesian Economy
    • Offered a convenient theoretical justification for what New Dealers has already done in pragmatic response to existing conditions 
    • Economist John Maynard explored these ideas in his book "The General Theory of Employment, Interest and Money"
    • Renewed government spending
  256. Return to Normalcy
    although progressivism lost its appeal after the great war, the 18 amendment(paving the way for prohibition) and the 19 amendment (guaranteeing woman's suffrage) marked the culmination of the movement at the national level. reformers still actively worked for good and efficient government at the local level, but overall the drive was a return to normalcy
  257. Andrew Mellon
    • part of harding's cabinet 
    • head of the treasury department
    • Mellon was accused of allowing his Aluminum Company of America to become a monopoly
  258. Ohio Gang
    a group with which Harding met in a house on K street to get away from the pressures of the whitehouse
  259. Teapot Dome
    • a scandal which surrounded the Harding Administration 
    • bribery incident that took place in the United States from 1920 to 1923, during the administration of President Warren G. Harding. Secretary of the Interior Albert B. Fall leased Navy petroleumreserves at Teapot Dome in Wyoming and two other locations in California to private oil companies at low rates without competitive bidding. In 1922 and 1923, the leases became the subject of a sensational investigation bySenator Thomas J. Walsh. Fall was later convicted of accepting bribes from the oil companies
  260. McNary-Haugen Bills
    in 1924, senator McNary of Oregon and representative Haugen of Iowa introduced this bill,which sought to secure "equality for agriculture in the benefits of the protective tariff"
  261. Alfred E. Smith
    • Democratic Nomination for the 1928 election
    • pledged "economic equality of agriculture with other industries"
    • looses to Herbert Hoover
    • Supported Volstead Act
  262. Volstead Act
    Provided for the enforcement of Prohibition
  263. buying (stock) on Margin
    When someone did not have the money to pay the full price of stocks, they could buy stocks "on margin." Buying stocks on margin means that the buyer would put down some of his own money, but the rest he would borrow from a broker. In the 1920s, the buyer only had to put down 10 to 20 percent of his own money and thus borrowed 80 to 90 percent of the cost of the stock.
  264. Reconstruction Finance Corporation (RFC)
    • set up in 1932
    • with 500 million for emergency loans to banks, life insurance companies, building-and-loan societies, farm-mortgage associations, and railroads
  265. Bonus Expeditionary Force
    The Bonus Army was the popular name of an assemblage of some 43,000 marchers—17,000 World War I veterans, their families, and affiliated groups—who gathered in Washington, D.C., in the spring and summer of 1932 to demand cash-payment redemption of their service certificates. Its organizers called it the Bonus Expeditionary Force to echo the name of World War I's American Expeditionary Force, while the media called it the Bonus March. It was led by Walter W. Waters, a former Army sergeant.
  266. 1927-1940
    • Great depression in U.S and abroad
    • America able to weather the depression better than others
  267. Germany After WWI
    • Suffering under the weight of their depression
    • paying war debts (reparations)
    • REALLY MAD!!
    • France and GB mad Germany didn't suffer enough
  268. Trade Problems After WWI
    • Higher tariffs 
    • trade not moving, goods not moving
    • bitter attitudes between countries begin to blossom
  269. Japan after WWI
    • Received a lot of territories 
    • 1920's new focus, greater East Asia co-sphere
    • restore and increase japans imperial ideas 
    • Push for greater influence, exert dominance over Korea 
    • Get Chinese providence of Manchuria
    • later sink US boat Penne, then apologized and payed reparations
  270. U.S after WWI
    • wanted european influence out of Latin America 
    • Roosevelt institutes the "Good Neighbor Policy"
  271. Good Neighbor Policy
    • America wont get in european business if they stayed out of latin america
    • would help U.S economically, Build up latin america and create a "buffer zone"
    • all countries in latin america agree except for one... Cuba
  272. 1920's A rise in Fascism in Italy
    • Dominated by middle class, small business, and agriculturists
    • Fear of communists and anarchists 
    • dont want low economic numbers 
    • racial superiority/ Anti semitism
  273. 1933 Germany
    • Adolf Hitler becomes chancellor in Germany
    • Institues the Nazi Party
    • Fear of communists and anarchists 
    • Germany fell to Hitlers charm due to trouble they were in after WWI
  274. Politics 
    Internationalists V. Isolationists
    • Internationalists- safety in numbers 
    • Isolationists- get dragged in B/C your friend was insulted
  275. Neutrality Act of 1935
    • FDR wanted to remain Neutral- better for US 
    • declares neutrality, wont trade or sell guns or weapons to fighting nations 
    • Later leads to "Cash and Carry"- don't lend money or loan. but can give non military supplies as long as cash is paid, and that country can take it from us
    • US knew only country that would be able to do this was GB because of their great navy
  276. Anti- Comintern Pact
    • Pact between Japan, Nazi Germany, and Fascist Italy 
    • formalized agreement to resist the United States and the Soviet Union
  277. Years 1938 1939 and 1940
    • 1938- Nazi Germany invades Austria 
    • annexes sudaten land (Czechoslovakia)
    • Hitler makes Non Aggression pact with Stalins Soviet Union
    • 1939- Nazi Germany invades Poland 
    • divides Poland into east and west 
    • also invade Norway and Belgium
    • France and GB declare war on Germany Again
    • 1940- Germany Occupies France
    • Soviets take the Baltic states
  278. Battle of Britain 1940
    • Nazis cannot invade Britain Because of its position 
    • so they launch a air battle only 
    • Known as The Blitz 
    • "keep calm and carry on"
    • Germanys first defeat in the war
  279. Winston Churchill
    • Was the prime minister of Great Britain
    • Coined the term Iron Curtain to describe the state of Europe after WWII
  280. Election of 1940
    • Incumbent President Franklin D. Roosevelt the democrat against the republican Wendell Willkie
    • FDR wins with his slogan " He kept us out of the war"
  281. Axis Powers
    • Formed as a continuation to the Anti-Commontern act, between Germany, Italy and Japan
    • Said anybody who attacked any one of them (besides the Soviet Union) they will come to the aide of them
  282. Lend Lease Bill
    • was a program under which the United States supplied Great Britain, the USSR, Republic of China, Free France, and other Allied nations with materiel between 1941 and August 1945
    • if you cat afford it, you will pay us back in the future
  283. United States Buffer Zones for WWII
    • US begins to create its own buffer zone 
    • Iceland and Greenland, and of course Latin America
  284. Non Agression Pact
    • Pact between Soviet Russia and Nazi Germany stating they would not invade any of their lands, and would be peaceful with each other
    • Hitler later breaks pact when he invades the Soviet Union 
    • many historians say if hitler did not invade Soviet Union, wed all speak russian
    • Soviet Union had a lot of "Meat for the Grinder" which meant a lot of people to throw at Nazi Germany
  285. FDR and Winston Churchill Meet
    • Meet to discuss war, and eventually the outcome of the war 
    • talked about the 4 freedoms
  286. Four Freedoms
    Speech, Religion, freedom from fear, and freedom from want
  287. October 1941
    • Nazi Germany sinks U.S ship
    • and the US are close to war
  288. Sino-Japenease War
    • military conflict fought primarily between the Republic of China and the Empire of Japan from 1937 to 1941
    • Japan which had Korea and Vietnam, and Japan wanted China for its Natural resources, food, and oil
    • Japan was a small country, poised to take over, wanted the dutch east indies also (oil rich)
  289. Mukden Incident
    A staged event engineered by rogue Japanese military personnel as a pretext for Japan invading the northeastern part of China, known as Manchuria, in 1931
  290. Benito Mussolini "Il Duce"
    • seized power in Italy
    • organized the Fascist movement in china, which was a hybrid of nationalism and socialism
    • Mussolini's Promise to restore order and pride in a country fragmented by dissension, enjoyed wide appeal
  291. Adolf Hitler "Führer"
    • Hitlers National Socialists German Workers (Nazis) duplicated the major features of Italian Fascism, including the ancient Roman salute.
    • Made chancellor on January 30, 1933, he swiftly won dictatorial powers from a subservient Reichstag (parliament)
  292. National Socialist German Worker's (Nazi) party
    Under the leadership of Adolf Hitler (1889-1945), the National Socialist German Workers' Party, or Nazi Party, grew into a mass movement and ruled Germany through totalitarian means from 1933 to 1945
  293. Blitzkrieg (the Blitz)
    • Germany's strategy was to defeat its opponents in a series of short campaigns. Germany quickly overran much of Europe and was victorious for more than two years by relying on a new military tactic called the "Blitzkrieg" (lightning war). Blitzkrieg tactics required the concentration of offensive weapons (such as tanks, planes, and artillery) along a narrow front
    • Germanys first major defeat of the war
  294. "internationalists"
    believed national security demanded aid to Britain, and isolationists who charged that Roosevelt was drawing the United States into a needless war
  295. Wendell L. Willkie
    corporate lawyer in the United States and adark horse who became the Republican Party nominee for president in 1940. A member of the liberal wing of the party, he crusaded against those domestic policies of the New Deal that he thought were inefficient and anti-business
  296. 1941-1945
    • United States entry into WWII
    • Nazis had most of Europe 
    • They have France and going into Russia 
    • British survive the blitz 
    • Italy enters war
  297. Pacific Japan
    • interests in Manchuria Korea and Vietnam 
    • Controlled most of coast wanted more
    • Attack on Pear Harbor
  298. Attack on Pearl Harbor
    • On December 7, 1941 the Japanese attack Pearl Harbor in Hawaii 
    • 2,400 lives are lost 
    • later Roosevelt delivers "day of infamy" speech 
    • In the same speech he declares war on the Empire of Japan
  299. Declaration of War on Japan
    • On December 8, 1941 the United States Congress declared war upon the Empire of Japanin response to that country's surprise attack on Pearl Harbor the prior day
    • 1) stated attacks on Pearl Harbor as treacherous and of low character 
    • 2) Presented god as on our side 
    • 3) American lives, property, and interests are at stake
  300. Underestimating the Enemy (Japan)
    • Misjudgment- They would attack Philippines, not Hawaii which we thought was too far
    • Overconfidence- didn't believe the Japanese navy was capable of doing this attack
    • Racism- Strong belief was they were poor pilots, nearsighted and incapable of carrying out the mission
  301. Soviets Vs. Nazi Germany and a bit of Japan
    • Soviets repel German advances at Stalingrad 
    • Battle of Coral Sea- stalemate battle
    • Japan takes the Aleutian Islands
    • Battles of New Guinea- sustained battles, US was trying to defend Australia of Japanese takeover
    • Australia important for ally repair
  302. 1940-1943 U.S engagement in Africa
    • Dwight Eisenhower general in North Africa 
    • U.S moves into Egypt to protect the Suez Canal 
    • Soviets begin to push west into western empire
    • Summer of 1943- Allies secure Africa
  303. January 1943, Casablanca meetings
    • in January 1943, Roosevelt and Churchill meet in Casablanca 
    • agree on unconditional surrender of the Axis Powers 
    • Will wait/ push to surrender 
    • Roosevelt and Churchill were distant cousins, and very good friends
  304. Take Italy out of WWII
    • September 1943- Allies decide to take Italy out of war
    • Britain invades Sicily, and in september they move into mainland Italy 
    • Benito Mussolini is taken out of power 
    • and U.S takes back the Aleutian Islands
  305. D-Day
    • June 6, 1944, 160,000 Allied troops landed along a 50-mile stretch of heavily-fortified French coastline to fight Nazi Germany on the beaches of Normandy, France. General Dwight D. Eisenhower called the operation a crusade in which “we will accept nothing less than full victory.” More than 5,000 Ships and 13,000 aircraft supported the D-Day invasion, and by day’s end on June 6, the Allies gained a foot- hold in Normandy. The D-Day cost was high -more than 9,000 Allied Soldiers were killed or wounded -- but more than 100,000 Soldiers began the march across Europe to defeat Hitler.
    • France is liberated on in June 1944
  306. More battles during WWII
    • U.S takes back Guam
    • Engage in August of 1944 in the Philippines on Leyte Islands 
    • Battle of the Bulge- major German offensive campaign launched through the densely forested Ardennesregion of Wallonia in Belgium, France and Luxembourg on the Western Fronttoward the end of World War II in Europe
    • Germanys last breath
  307. Yalta Conference, February 1945
    • The Yalta Conference, sometimes called the Crimea Conference andcodenamed the Argonaut Conference, held February 4–11, 1945, was the World War II meeting of the heads of government of the United States, the United Kingdom, and the Soviet Union, represented byPresident Franklin D. Roosevelt, Prime Minister Winston Churchill, andGeneral Secretary Joseph Stalin, respectively, for the purpose of discussing Europe's post-war reorganization
    • 1) Soviet Union will enter the war in the Pacific after Germany is defeated 
    • 2) Soviet Union will absorb Eastern Poland 
    • 3) and displaced states will have coalition governments... then free elections 
    • 4) Germany divided into 5 "occupational zones"
    • 5) Soviet Union gets back territories lost in Russo-Japenease war
    • 6) Soviet Union Take control of Chinese Eastern and southern manchurian railroads
  308. April 12, 1945
    While on a vacation in Warm Springs, Georgia, President Roosevelt suffers a stroke and dies. His death marked a critical turning point in U.S. relations with the Soviet Union, as his successor, Harry S. Truman, decided to take a tougher stance with the Russians
  309. Harry S. Truman
    • becomes President after FDR's death in 1945
    • Potsdam Conference- Stalin, Truman, and GB meet
    • while there, Truman gets word of successful testings of atomic bomb
    • Announces to Japan to surrender or face eminent destruction
    • Emperor Hirohito- Refuses to Surrender
    • what should he do with the Soviet Union
  310. Bombing Of Japan
    • begin bombing island of Japan from May 1944- August 1945
    • on August 6, 1945- Drops bomb on Hiroshima Japan, 150,000 people die
    • April 9 1945, 2nd bomb dropped on Nagasaki
    • We allow Hirohito to stay on throne
    • Japan Surrenders on September 2. 1945
  311. Admiral Chester Nimitz
    was the leading U.S. Navy authority on submarines, as well as Chief of the Navy's Bureau of Navigation in 1939. He served as Chief of Naval Operations (CNO) from 1945 until 1947. He was the United States' last surviving Fleet Admiral
  312. Woman's Army Corps (WAC)
    was the women's branch of the United States Army. It was created as an auxiliary unit, the Women's Army Auxiliary Corps (WAAC) on 15 May 1942 by Public Law 554, and converted to full status as the WAC on 1 July 1943. Its first director was Oveta Culp Hobby, a prominent society woman in Texas
  313. Woman Accepted For Volunteer Emergency Services (WAVES)
    WAVES on 30 July 1942 was established as a World War II division of the U.S. Navy, that consisted entirely of women in the 1940s, but on 12 June 1948, women gained permanent status in the armed services of the United States. The name was the acronym for "Women Accepted for Volunteer Emergency Service"[1] (as well as an allusion to ocean waves). The word "emergency" implied that the acceptance of women was due to the unusual circumstances of World War II, and at the end of the war the women would not be allowed to continue in Navy careers, but it or its successors continued for decades afterwards
  314. Tuskegee Airman
    popular name of a group of African-American pilots who fought in World War II. Formally, they formed the 332nd Fighter Group and the 477th Bombardment Group of the United States Army Air Forces
  315. A. Phillip Randolph
    was a leader in the African-American civil-rights movement, the American labor movement and socialist political parties.He organized and led the Brotherhood of Sleeping Car Porters, the first predominantly black labor union. In the early civil-rights movement, Randolph led the March on Washington Movement, which convinced President Franklin D. Roosevelt to issue Executive Order 8802 in 1941, banning discrimination in the defense industries during World War II. After the war Randolph pressured PresidentHarry S. Truman to issue Executive Order 9981 in 1948, ending segregation in the armed services.
  316. Internment of Japanese Americans
    Japanese American internment was the World War II internment in "War Relocation Camps" of over 110,000 people of Japanese heritage who lived on the Pacific coast of the United States. The U.S. government ordered the internment in 1942, shortly after Imperial Japan's attack on Pearl Harbor.
  317. Atlantic Charter
    pivotal policy statement issued in August 1941 that, early in World War II, defined the Allied goals for the post-war world. It was drafted by the leaders of Britain and the United States, and later agreed to by all the Allies. The Charter stated the ideal goals of the war: no territorial aggrandizement; no territorial changes made against the wishes of the people
  318. Joseph Stalin
    • Josef Stalin (1878-1953) served as the General Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union's Central Committee from 1922 until his death in 1953. Initially, Stalin's role in the Committee was limited, but he gradually accumulated power and became the Party's leader and absolute ruler of the Soviet Union. Under his leadership, the Soviet Union played a major role in the defeat of Hitler's Germany during World War II.
    • expands to Poland, Czechoslovakia, Hungary, Romania, Bulgaria=poor and leaderless nations
  319. Dwight D. Eisenhower
    • During WWII he command the allied forces landing in Africa 
    • 1952- elected president bc he promised to clean up Washington and end war in Korea 
    • Came up with the Civil Rights act 1957
  320. Operation Overlord
    • Dwight D. Eisenhower was the coordinator of this
    • The allies assaults Hitlers atlantic wall which were a series of mine fields along the french coastline that German forces created using captive europeans for laborers
  321. Battle of the Bulge
    • Decmeber 16 1944, the german army launched a counter attack against the allied forces which pushed them back 
    • the allies were eventually able to recover and break through the German lines 
    • This defeat was a great blow to the Nazi morale and their army strength 
    • it used up the last of hitlers reserve units and opened a route to germanys heartland
  322. J Robert Oppenheimer
    worked out scientific and technical problems of the bomb construction in Los Alamos, New Mexico
  323. The Legacy of FDR
    • Elected to 4 terms (most by any president)
    • got through the Great Depression and ended WWII 
    • conveyed to the world a sense of empathy
    • Some negatives
    • Depression still waged on under his office
    • his New Deal war largely ineffective
    • quick to green light atomic weapons 
    • knew what was going on in Europe but was slow to act
  324. 1930's Economic Strife
    • Economic hardships in Europe sustained fears int people that it was not going to get any better 
    • enabled Italy to Follow Mussolini and Germany to follow Hitler
  325. Containment
    • Stalin was only aggressive on territories that were not defended and were more succumb to fall to communism 
    • put places run by allied armies so he would not take the land
  326. Truman Doctrine
    • Recognizes that Greece and Turkey are in trouble and may fall to communism 
    • will give them money to help them become allies
  327. Marshall Plan
    • Continuation on Truman Doctrine 
    • What if we give money to all the countries and remove the conditions that made communism attractive
    • U.S even makes offer to Soviet Union
  328. NATO (North Atlantic Treaty Organization)
    • allies form group to support each other in resistance to communism
    • designed with North Atlantic in mind
  329. Election of 1948
    • Truman (Democrat), Dewey (Republican) and Thurmond (Dixiecrat)
    • Democrats put as party platform end of segregation (integration of races)
    • The election is considered to be the greatest election upset in American history.[1][2][3] Virtually everyprediction (with or without public opinion polls) indicated that Truman would be defeated by Dewey. Both parties had severe ideological splits, with the far left and far right of the Democratic Party running third-party campaigns. Truman's surprise victory was the fifth consecutive presidential win for the Democratic Party, the longest winning streak in the history of the party, and second-longest in the history of both modern parties
  330. Strum Thurmond
    • Not a fan of integration, offended his party is using Integration as their party platform 
    • democrats wont change it 
    • so Thurmond and others leave party to form the Dixiecrats 
    • Election where there is a bit of a swap from republican and democrat ways
  331. NSC-68
    • Extension of the Truman Doctrine, Marshall Plan 
    • Need to invest more money in our military 
    • increase of our Conventional army
    • money set aside to further nuclear weapon research
  332. Israel
    • Countries around Israel recognizing communist countries administers to Jews 
    • British Leave, so we come in as friends
  333. Fair Employment Practices Committee
    • a higher minimum wage
    • slum clearance and low rent housing, regional development of the nations river valleys, and a public works program
  334. Security Council
    would remain in permanent session and and would have "primary responsibility for the maintenance of international peace and security".
  335. Nuremberg Trials
    The Nuremberg Trials were a series of military tribunals, held by the Allied forces of World War II, most notable for the prosecution of prominent members of the political, military, and economic leadership of Nazi Germany
  336. Iron Curtain
    • Term coined by Winston Churchill 
    • symbolized the ideological conflict and physical boundary dividing Europe into two separate areas from the end of World War II in 1945 until the end of the Cold War in 1991. The term symbolized efforts by the Soviet Union to block itself and its dependent and central European allies off from open contact with the west and non-communist areas. On the East side of the Iron Curtain were the countries that were connected to or influenced by the former Soviet Union. On either side of the Iron Curtain, states developed their own international economic and military alliances:
  337. Containment
    • by the beginning of 1947, relations with the Soviet Union became even more troubled.
    • the Allie forces then focused on containing the Soviets, and prevent them from spreading any further
  338. George F. Kennan
    • Keenan's 1947 foreign affairs article spelled out the doctrine for containment 
    • his concept dovetailed with the outlook of Truman and his advisors
  339. George C. Marshall
    was an American military leader, Chief of Staff of the Army, Secretary of State, and the third Secretary of Defense. Once noted as the "organizer of victory" by Winston Churchill for his leadership of the Allied victory in World War II,[4] Marshall served as the United States Army Chief of Staff during the war and as the chief military adviser to President Franklin D. Roosevelt.Marshall's name was given to the Marshall Plan, subsequent to a commencement address he presented as Secretary of State atHarvard University in the spring of 1947. The speech broadly outlined for Europeans to create their own plan for rebuilding Europe after WWII, funded by the United States. Marshall received the Nobel Peace Prize for the plan in 1953
  340. Jackie Robinson
    • First African American Baseball player to play in the Major leagues 
    • faced tons of adversity and hardships yet was able to overcome the color barrier
  341. Dixiecrats
    group of rebellious southern democrats met in Birmingham, Alabama. While waving confederate flags, they nominated Strom Thurmond on a states right democratic ticket, quickly named the Dixiecrat part.
  342. General Douglas MacArthur
    General of the Army Douglas MacArthur (26 January 1880 – 5 April 1964) was an American general and field marshal of the Philippine Army who was Chief of Staff of the United States Army during the 1930s and played a prominent role in the Pacific theater during World War II. He received the Medal of Honor for his service in thePhilippines Campaign, which made him and his father Arthur MacArthur, Jr., the first father and son to be awarded the medal. He was one of only five men ever to rise to the rank of General of the Army in the U.S. Army, and the only man ever to become a field marshal in the Philippine Army.
  343. Alger Hiss
    was an American lawyer, government official, author, and lecturer. He was involved in the establishment of the United Nations both as a U.S. State Department and U.N. official. Hiss was accused of being a Soviet spy in 1948 and convicted of perjury in connection with this charge in 1950
  344. House Committee on Un-American Activities (HUAC)
    kept up a drumbeat of accusations about supposed communist subversives in the federal government
  345. Senator Joseph R. McCarthy
    • was an American politician who served as a Republican U.S. Senator from the state of Wisconsin from 1947 until his death in 1957. Beginning in 1950, McCarthy became the most visible public face of a period in which Cold War tensions fueled fears of widespread Communist subversion.[1] He was noted for making claims that there were large numbers of Communists and Soviet spies and sympathizers inside the United States federal government and elsewhere. Ultimately, his tactics and inability to substantiate his claims led him to be censured by the United States Senate.
    • Came up with Communism
  346. The Korean War
    • After communist government came to power in China in 1949, Korea became "hot spot". was divided at the 38th parallel after WWII, with a communist regime in the north led by Kim ill Sung, and a nationalist regime in the south led by Syngman Rhee. North Korea invaded south korea in june 1950. in 3 months they pushed south korea all the way to Pusan. General Macarthur in charge of U.S forces, lands in Inchon. says they should invade mainland China, Truman fires him, Chinese forces advance
    • in 2 and a half years we stalemate with Korea
  347. Election of 1952
    • Dwight D Eisenhower the republican ran against Adlai Stevenson the democrat. 
    • Incumbent Harry S. Truman decided not to run due to poor primary showing. 
    • Eisenhower promised to get rid of Communists and out of Korea. 
    • Eisenhower wins with a landslide victory.
  348. Dwight D Eisenhower
    • Warrior with a peace makers mentality
    • Not very tough on communists 
    • Richard Nixon was his Vice President 
    • His "hidden hand" eventually helped push Senator Joseph R. McCarthy out of the national spotlight, but Eisenhower's unwillingness to confront McCarthy directly allowed the senator to continue to abuse his power and sully the reputations of those he wrongfully accused.
    • on July 1953, traveled to Korea to make peace agreements. Armistice line
  349. Iran
    • 1953, british and france own petroleum interests in Iran
    • Prime minister of Iran Nationalizes Petroleum 
    • U.S and British (Operation Boot) and undertake a coup and find people to lead a revolt against him, and return the Oil back to the West
  350. Hungary
    • In 1956- Stalin is dead, new prime minister is Nikita Khrushchev
    • Remove the Prime Minister of Hungary because he was stalin's stooge  and react to the end of soviet control in the country
    • Hungarian Revolution- Shut down Govt, and shut down State Police to overthrow communism, and enact free elections
    • Soviets role into Budapest , firing, 100's are killed, arrested, and deported
    • Eisenhower does not do anything
  351. Egypt
    • 1956, U.S and Great Britain have deal with Egypt to build a Aswan high dam to control Nile River flooding and create Hydroelectric electricity. 
    • President of Egypt Nationalizes Suez Canal owned by the British and French
    • Israel is prohibited in shipping, and can no longer use the Suez Canal. 
    • Arms deal with the Soviet Union and recognize communist China 
    • Hate Israel 
    • Many ties with arab countries 
    • British and U.S pull out of funding, eisenhower convinces Israel to withdraw, and pull back. 
    • President Nassar seen as hero
  352. Election of 1956
    Eisenhower beats Stephenson in a landslide victory
  353. Warsaw Pact of 1956
    mutual defense treaty between 8 communist States of Central and Eastern Europe in existence during the Cold War. The founding treaty was established under the initiative of the Soviet Union and signed on 14 May 1955, in Warsaw
  354. Sputnik
    • 1957 soviets launched sputnik 
    • first satellite into orbit, it beeps for 22 days and then falls out of the sky, then the U.S freaks out
    • led to a period of education in science math and technology
  355. The Berlin Wall
    1957 Kruschev is mad because people are escaping from the Soviet Union to Berlin, so contracts the wall to keep people where they are
  356. The Kitchen Debate
    1959 Kreuschev and Nixon. talked about who had the better household appliances
  357. The USAF
    • U-2 spy plane, shot down by Russia.
    • Eisenhower admitted to spy plane, but refused to apologize
  358. NATO Allies
    1959 everyone has chosen sides, and has nuclear weapons.
  359. Baby Boom
    • a higher birthrate in the years following WWII
    • New generation growing up in a era free from war, and other discrepancies
    • 1945 to 1963
  360. Consumer Culture
    • Post WWII there was a boom in construction as well as products and appliances for americans to buy and as a result shopping became an activity
    • Americans started spending more, saving less and building more shopping centers
  361. Suburbia
    • Mass migration to the suburbs 
    • population in cites grew and people began to spread further out into urban areas
  362. Sunbelts
    from the Carolinas to California where most of the Urban population growth occurred
  363. Levittown
    • first low cost mass produced development of suburban tracked housing 
    • built by William Levitt on long island new york in 1947
  364. Great Black Migration
    • after WWII, rural Southern blacks began moving to the Urban north and midwest in large numbers in search of better jobs, housing, and greater social equality 
    • overwhelmed the resources of urban governments and sparked racial conflict 
    • to cope with the new migrants, cities constructed public housing projects that segregated african americans
  365. Beats
    • Group of writers, artists and musicians whose central concern was the discarding of traditional conventions in favor of liberated forms of self expression 
    • came out of new york's greenwich village in the 1950's 
    • attitudes and lifestyles had a major influence on the youth
  366. Beatnik
    any young rebel who openly dissented from the middle class life
  367. Youth Culture
    • youth of the 1950's had more money and free time than any previous generation
    • a market emerged for products and activities that were specifically for young people such as radios, rock records and 17 magazine
  368. Rock n' Roll
    • Alan Freed, a disk jockey noticed that white teenagers were buying rhythm and blues records that had only been purchased by african americans
    • Freed began playing these records, but called them Rock n' Roll records to overcome the racial barrier 
    • helped bridge the gap between white and black music
    • combing of african american blues, western and Jazz 
    • Elvis Pressly- ultimate rebellion had black waist movements so white people didn't want his music to be played
  369. 14 amendment
    all people are citizens
  370. Due Process Clause
    states can't take away a persons life, liberty, or property
  371. Hommer Plessey
    • Octorun (1/8 black) 
    • creole and born in Louisiana
    • Free black Family
  372. Plessy Vs. Ferguson
    • a civil rights organization convinced Plessey to sit in the whites only rail car 
    • The organization called the railroad company and let them know what they were doing and he was arrested 
    • Plessey losses
  373. Separate but Equal
    • as long as facilities were equal, you can have them separate
    • 1954- ruled inherently unequal
  374. NAACP (National Association for the Advancement of Colored People)
    • Founded by W.E.B Dubois in 1909
    • goal to provide racial equality for all people such as in education and criminal law
    • also wanted to end lynching
  375. Crucial Court Cases
    • Shelley Vs. Kramer 1948- restricted Contract in real estate 
    • Sipuel vs Board of Regents of the University of Oklahoma 1948- separate school doesn't have to be requested, it has to be provided 
    • McLaunn Vs. Oklahoma State Regents 1950- Blacks could not be outside of the classroom setting
  376. Charles Hamilton Houston
    • Professor at Harvard 
    • developed the strategy of the NAACP incorporated fund 
    • single focus for their efforts was education
  377. Thurgood Marshall
    • lead attorney of Hamilton 
    • first black supreme court justice 
    • attacked separate but equal phrase as unfair
  378. Social Roots of Civil Rights movement
    • supreme court does not like to overrule itself 
    • what if it does not win
  379. Jesse Owens
    • 1936 Berlin Olympics 
    • Beats Germany and wins the Gold Medal 
    • Embarrassed Hitler and encouraged equality in athletics
  380. Joe Louis defeats Max Schmeling
    1938-  As the first significant African American athlete since Jack Johnson, Louis was among the few focal points for African American pride in the 1930s. Moreover, as a contest between representatives of theUnited States and Nazi Germany during the 1930s, the fights came to symbolize the struggle between democracy and fascism
  381. Eleanor Roosevelt
    • Advocate for Civil Rights and woman's rights 
    • wrote columns for civil rights movement
  382. Gunnar Myrdal
    1944- America can't succeed unless gives equality to all
  383. Blacks in WWII
    • they fought in segregated units and liberated concentration camps
    • In 1948 Truman desegregates the army
  384. Dr Mammie Clark and Dr Kenneth B. Clark
    • doctors of Psychology, did baby doll test
    • one black and one white doll, and children played with dolls 
    • the more segregated black children chose white doll as good
  385. Judicial Restraint
    Judges keep their hands off situations
  386. Judicial Activism
    Changing based on social conditions
  387. Cooper vs. Aaron
    States must follow the supreme court
  388. GI Bill
    If you fought in the war you get money for college
  389. White Flight
    • Woman moved in with friends when white soldiers left for war.
    • southern blacks moved into empty homes and soldiers didn't like it so they moved into the suburbs because the cities were dirty
  390. At Home in the 1950's
    • Disposable income, appliances for woman to save time but instead it raises expectations 
    • TV brings culture across the United States
  391. Hobbies in the 1950's
    Yard work, bowling, golf, drinking, BBQ, sitcoms, westerns, sports, and news
  392. 1950's STYLE!!!
    • colors were different pastels, greens, corals, and yellows 
    • Furniture gets thinner
    • Chrome becomes popular
  393. Route 66
    • from Chicago to LA
    • one lane each way
    • 1956 Eisenhower realized good for commuters and protection 
    • interstate highway defense system across the country
    • roadside architecture and attractions 
    • diners, motels, bowling alleys
  394. Juvenile delinquency
    • kids are getting in trouble because of certain mindsets 
    • many are becoming rebels 
    • 1 job of the teen is to rebel against parents
    • rebel against everything thats good and secure
    • rise in gangs arrests and dropouts in school
  395. Rebel Film
    • James Dean and Marlon Brando 
    • 12 angry men 
    • drove fast didn't listen to rules 
    • guys wanted to be them, girls wanted to be with them
    • leather jackets and motorcycles
  396. Literature in the 1950's
    • the catcher in the rye by J.D Sallinger, themes of alienation
    • Lord of the flies by William Golding, community vs the individual
    • The Cat in the hat by Dr Suess, mischief change in attitude in education
  397. Allen Ginsberg
    • wrote the poem Howl, written for a friend in a mental institution
    • was a famous beat generation writer
  398. Jackson Pollack
    • Artist
    • most famous painting was autumn rhythm 
    • abstract expression which is something that stands for something real
    • emotion on display
  399. Adlai E. Stephenson
    • 1952 and 1956 presidential elections 
    • was a democratic nominee who lost to Eisenhower twice 
    • ambassador of the United Nations
  400. John Foster Dulles
    • President Eisenhower's secretary of state 
    • he instates policy of containment and introduced the strategy of deterrence 
    • believed in using brinkmanship to halt the spread of communism 
    • attempted to employ it in indochina which led to the United States involvement in Vietnam
  401. Warren Court
    • U.S supreme court under chief justice Earl Warren 
    • decided such landmark cases like Brown vs. Board of education (school desegregation)
    • Baker vs Carr (put legislative redistricting)
    • Gideon vs. Wainwright and Miranda vs Arizona (rights of criminal defendants)
  402. Massive Retaliation
    In reaction to Brown vs. Board of Education U.S senator Harry Byrd encouraged southern states to defy federally mandated school integration
  403. Brinkmanship
    • Secretary of state John Foster Dulles believed that communism could be contained by bringing america to the brink of war with an aggressive communist nation 
    • believed that the aggressor would back down when confronted with the prospect of receiving  a mass retaliation from a country with nuclear weapons
  404. Indochina
    • areas of southeast asia consist of laos Cambodia became Vietnam and was once controlled by france as a colony. after the Vietminh, defeated the french 
    • the geneva accords were signed which ended french colonial rule 
    • agreement created the independent nations of Laois and Cambodia and divided Vietnam along the 17th parallel. 
    • fearing a communist takeover, the U.S government began intervening in the region during the Truman administration
    • led to president Johnson's fuel scale military involvement
  405. Ho Chi Minh
    • Vietnamese communist resistance leader who drove the french and the United States out of Vietnam 
    • after the Geneva accords divided the region into 4 countries he controls north Vietnam and ultimately became the leader of all of Vietnam at the conclusion of the Vietnam war
  406. Diem Bien Phu
    • Defining battle in the war between french colonists and the vietminh 
    • the vietminh's victory secured north Vietnam from Ho Chi Minh and was curtail in compelling the french to give up indochina as a colony
  407. Geneva Accords
    • in 1954 it was signed and it ended french colonial rule in indochina 
    • the agreement created the independent nations of Laois and Cambodia and divided Vietnam along the 17th parallel until an election in 1956 would reunify the country
  408. Ngo Dinh Diem
    • following the Geneva Accords the french with the support of America forced the Vietnamese emperor to accept Dinh Diem as the new perimeter of south Vietnam 
    • President Eisenhower sent advisors to train Diem Police and army
    • in return the United States expected Diem to enact democratic reforms and distribute lands to the peasants
    • instead he suppressed his political opponents and did little or no land distribution and let corruption grow 
    • 1956 he refused to participate in elections to reunify Vietnam eventually he ousted the emperor and declared himself President
  409. Viet Cong
    1956 these guerrilla forces began attacking south vietnams government and in 1960 the resistance groups coalesced as the national liberation front
  410. Fidel Castro
    • in 1959 his communist regime came to power in cuba after 2 years of guerrilla warfare against the dictator Fulgenico Batista 
    • enacted land redistribution programs and nationalized all foreign property 
    • Later action as well as his political trials and summary executions damaged relations between Cuba and America
    • He was turned down when he asked for loans from the UNited States
    • However, he received aid from the Soviet Union
  411. Brown vs Board of Education of Topeka, Kansas
    1954 U.S supreme court decision that struck down racial segregation in public education and declared separate but equal unconstitutional
  412. Rosa Parks
    • in 1955 she refused to give up her seat to a white man on a city bus in montgomery, Alabama
    • she was arrested for disobeying the ordinance 
    • in response, black community leaders organized the montgomery bus boycott
  413. Martin Luther King Jr.
    • urged people to use nonviolent civil disobedience to demand there rights and bring about change 
    • he led the montgomery bus boycott and while in jail he wrote his famous "letter from Birmingham city jail" which he defended his strategy of nonviolent protest 
    • 1963 i have a dream speech as a part of the march on washington and a year later he was awarded the nobel peace prize 
    • 1968 assassinated
  414. Montgomery Bus Boycott
    • sparked by rosa parks on december 1 1955 
    • successful year long boycott protesting segregation on city buses led by MLK Jr
    • 1960- sit ins started in Greensboro N.C
  415. Southern Christian Leadership Conference
    Civil rights organization founded in 1957 by MLK Jr
  416. Civil rights Act of 1957
    • first federal civil rights law since reconstruction
    • established the civil rights commission and the civil rights division of the department of justice
  417. John F. Kennedy
    • elected president in 1960
    • he established the Alliance Progress programs to help Latin America, the Peace Corps, the Trade Expansion Act of 1962 and funding for urban renewal projects and the space program.
    • Mistakenly proceeded with the Bay of Pigs invasion, but he successfully handled the Cuban Missle Crisis.
    • In Indochina his administration became increasingly involved in supporting local governments through aid, advisors, and covert operations.
    • June 11, 1963 he delivers his only speech about civil rights because he said it was a "moral problem"
    • 1963 he was assassinated by Lee Harvey Oswald
    • speaks to a vibrant youth 
    • he was very sick but he projected a different image
  418. New Frontier
    • JFK's program
    • stymied by a republican congress and his abbreviated term
    • Lyndon B. Johnson had a greater success with many of the same concepts
  419. Robert McNamara
    • secretary of defense for both president Kennedy and Johnson and a supporter for american involvement in Vietnam
    • towards the end of his life he admitted that the Vietnam War was a mistake
  420. Miranda Vs. Arizona
    1966 U.S supreme court decision required the police to advise persons in the custody of their rights to legal counsel and against self-incrimination
  421. Freedom Riders
    • 1961 the Congress of Racial Equality had this group of black and while demonstrators ride buses to test the federal court ruling that had banned segregation on buses, trains, and in terminals.
    • their actions generated national attention and support for their cause
  422. Militant Nonviolence
    • after the success of the Montgomery Bus Boycott people were inspired by Martin Luther King Jr. use of this nonviolent form of protest
    • throughout the Civil Rights Movement demonstrators used this method of protest to challenge racial segregation in the South
  423. James Meredith
    • 1962 the governor of Mississppi defied a supreme court ruling and refused to allow James an African American to enroll at the University of Mississppi.
    • federal marshalls were sent in to enforce the laws which led to clashes between a white mob and the marshalls
    • federal troops intervened and two people were killed and many were injured
    • a few days later James was able to register at the university
  424. George Wallace
    • defender of segregation
    • governor of Alabama he once attempted to block African American students from enrolling at the University of Alabama
    • he ran as the presidential candidate for the American Independent Party in 1968
    • he appealed to voters who were concerned about rioting anti war protestors, the welfare system and the growth of the federal government
  425. March on Washington
    Civil Rights demonstration on August 28, 1963, where Martin Luther King Jr. gave his "I have a Dream Speech" on the steps of the Lincoln Memorial
  426. Cuban Missile Crisis
    • caused when the United States discovered Soviet offensive missile sites in Cuba in October 1962
    • the U.S-Soviet confrontation was the cold wars closest brush with nuclear war
    • active nuclear missiles 90 miles off the coast of the U.S
    • Kruschev and JFK have secret talks and Kruschev removes missiles and JFK removes missiles from Turkey
  427. Barry Goldwater
    • he was a leader of the Republican right whose book, The Conscience of a Conservative, was highly influencial to the segment of the party
    • he posed eliminating the income tax and overhauling Social Security
    • 1964 he ran as Republican presidentail canidate but lost to Johnson
    • he campaigned against Johnsons war on poverty, the tradition of the New Deal, the nuclear test ban andn the Civil Rights Act of 1964
    • advocated the bombing of Nort Vietnam
  428. Great Society
    • term coined by President Lyndon B. Johnson in his 1965 State of the Union address, in which he proposed legislation to address problems of voting rights, poverty. diseases, education, immigration and the environment
    • medicare, medicaid, immigration and National Wilderness Preservation System
  429. Civil Rights Act of 1964
    • outlawed discrimination in public accommodations and employment
    • Ex: hotels, restaurants, theaters and motels
  430. Black Power Movement
    • more militant form of protest for cvil rights that originated in urban communities, where nonviolent tactics were less effective than in the south
    • black power encouraged african americans to take pride in their racial heritage and forced black leaders and organizations to focus attention on the plight of poor inner city blacks
  431. Malcolm X
    • most articulate spokeman for black power
    • originally the cheif disciple Elijah Muhammad, the black muslim leader in the U.S, Malcolm X broke away from him and founded his organization committed to establishing relations between african americans and the nonwhite peoples of the world
    • near the end of his life he began to preach a biracial message of social change
    • 1964 he was assinated by a rival group of black muslims
  432. Tonkin Gulf Resolution
    • passed by congress in reaction to supposedly unprovoked attacks on american warships off the coast of North Vietnam
    • gave the president Johnson unlimited authority to defend U.S forces and members of SEATO
  433. Gulf of Tonkin Incident
    • August 2 and 4 of 1964, North Vietnamese vessels attacked two amercian destroyers in the Gulf of Tonkin off the coast of North Vietnam
    • president Johnson described the attacks as unprovoked
    • in reality the U.S ships were monitoring South Vietnamese attacks on North Vietnamese islands that america advisors had planned
  434. Tet Offensive
    • suprise attack by the Viet Cong and North Vietnamese during the Vietnamese New Year of 1968
    • 100 attacks on South Vietnam that's not military successful but it's politically successful
    • turned american public opinion strongly againist the was in Vietnam
  435. Election of 1960
    • Kennedy- "We can do better"
    • Nixon-economic prosperity 
    • 1st televised debate 
    • Kennedy understood the power of TV and wears makeup
    • closest election ever
  436. Lyndon B Johnson
    • VP for Texas, which is how Kennedy won the South
    • he went to disenfranchised voters
    • became president after Kennedy was assassinated  
    • "Johnson Treatment"- always in your face and he believed in the govt for the people
  437. Nikita Khrushchev
    leader of the Soviet Union
  438. Vietnam War
    1961 when JFK sent out advisors to put in plans for anti-communist rule
  439. Vietnam Summit
    • June 3, 1961
    • Khrushchev didn't like that people were escaping into west Berlin so he wanted to shut down Berlin and he decided to build the Berlin Wall 
    • doesn't go well for JFK because Khrushchev doesn't respect him
    • after a while JFK and Kruschev agree on a partial nuclear ban treaty and to only test them underground
  440. Bay of Pigs
    unsuccessful military invasion of Cuba undertaken by the CIA-sponsored paramilitary group Brigade 2506 on 17 April 1961. A counter-revolutionary military, trained and funded by the United States government's Central Intelligence Agency (CIA), Brigade 2506 fronted the armed wing of the Democratic Revolutionary Front (DRF) and intended to overthrow the revolutionary left wing governmentof Fidel Castro. Launched from Guatemala, the invading force was defeated within three days by the Cuban armed forces, under the direct command of Prime Minister Fidel Castro.
  441. Freedom Summer
    • 1964 
    • Mississippi had the worst voting record and people decided to help them register to vote
    • opened 30 freedom school to black children that taught principles behind Civil Rights, how to be good citizens
    • three volunteers to help with this movement went missing because they were teaching african americans to vote
  442. Norman Rockwell
    painter and illustrator. His works enjoy a broad popular appeal in the United States for their reflection of American culture. Rockwell is most famous for the cover illustrations of everyday life scenarios he created for The Saturday Evening Post magazine for more than four decades.[1] Among the best-known of Rockwell's works are the Willie Gillis series, Rosie the Riveter, The Problem We All Live With, Saying Grace and the Four Freedoms series. He is also noted for his work for the Boy Scouts of America (BSA), producing covers for their publication Boys' Life, calendars, and other illustrations.
  443. Election of 1964
    • Johnson vs.Goldwater 
    • Johnson wins because Goldwater was pro nuclear war
  444. Bloody Sunday
    • marches in March 1964 to Montgomery Alabama 
    • made the front page of newspapers in the North
    • The Selma to Montgomery marches, also known as Bloody Sunday and the two marches that followed, were marches and protests held in 1965 that marked the political and emotional peak of the American civil rights movement. All three were attempts to march from Selma to Montgomery where the Alabama capitol is located.
  445. Voting Rights Act
    • prohibited and states from imposing any "voting qualification or prerequisite to voting, or standard, practice, or procedure, to deny or abridge the right of any citizen of the U.S to vote on the account of race and color."
    • enforced the 15th amendment
    • outlawed the literacy tests and grandfather clauses
  446. Domino Theory
    U.S is afraid that if one country falls to communism that other countries close by will fall to communism also
  447. Viet Cong
    North Vietnamese communists that live in South Vietnam
  448. Agent Orange
    poison dropped on trees so their leaves fell off, to locate camps and bases, and ends up killing up to a million people exposed to breathing it in, skin cancer, cancer and birth defects
  449. Peace Movement in America is Radicalized
    end the war, poverty, racial injustice and nuclear weapons
  450. Nuclear Disarmament
    never resort to Nuclear weapons
  451. Students for Democratic Society
    • on college campus there were protests and strikes for peace
    • major organization founded by the New Left, at the University at Michigan in 1960 by Tom Hayden
  452. Caesar Chavez
    • founded a labor organization in California for migrant workers (United Farm Workers)
    • they used non violence and the method of starvation
  453. The Black Panthers
    • black power in the 1960's (black panthers fist) 
    • starts in Oakland California 
    • willing to use violence but much more willing to use the appearance of violence
    • meal programs, after school care, medicine, delivery
    • leaders were Stokely Carmichael, Bobby Seale, Angelia Davis
  454. Mexico's 1968 Olympics
    • John Carlos wins a gold medal for lifting 
    • which started a political protest
    • Peter Norman started the Olympic Project for Human Rights
  455. Music in the 1960's
    • music is exploding
    • Ex: Black Soul music, all american blues music,Grateful dead, Rolling Stones, Beatles, Led-Zeppelin
  456. Betty Friedan
    wrote "The Feminine Mystique"said that housewives aren't fulfilled on the whole
  457. Vietnam and the Counter Culture
    1967 LBJ knew we wouldn't win the war
  458. Summer of Love
    • birth of the counter culture takes place in San Francisco
    • weed, LSD, hippies, flower children, communal living, free love, music, drugs, anti war, peace, equality
  459. Walter Cronkite
    • "the most trusted man in america"
    • news anchor who said that we would not win the war
  460. "The Chicago Seven"
    The Chicago Seven (originally Chicago Eight, also Conspiracy Eight/Conspiracy Seven) were seven defendants—Abbie Hoffman, Jerry Rubin, David Dellinger, Tom Hayden, Rennie Davis, John Froines, and Lee Weiner—charged with conspiracy, inciting to riot, and other charges related to countercultural protests that took place in Chicago, Illinois on the occasion of the 1968 Democratic National Convention. Bobby Seale, the eighth man charged, had his trial severed during the proceedings, lowering the number from eight to seven
  461. 1968 Election
    • Nixon vs. Humphry
    • Nixon wins
  462. Vietnamization
    • the U.S turns war operations over to South Vietnamese but they aren't ready
    • Nixons policy of equipping and training south vietnamese so that they could assume ground combat operations in the place of American soldiers
    • Nixon hoped it would defuse the anti war movement
  463. Massacre at MyLai
    • October 1968
    • killing of women and children
    • Lieutenant William Calley and his soldiers massacured 347 Vietnamese civilians in the village of MyLai
    • 25 army officers were charged but only Calley was convicted but later Nixon granted him parole
  464. "The Secret War"
    American clandestine involvement in the Laotian Civil War (1953–1975), which was in part a theater of the larger Vietnam War.
  465. Woodstock
    • was a music festival, 3 Days of Peace & Music". It was held at Max Yasgur's dairy farm in the Catskills, in Bethel NY
    • expression of the flower childrens free spirit
    • Ex: Bob Dylan
  466. Man on the Moon
    June 11th 1969
  467. Gay Rights Movement
    • June 28, 1969
    • begins in Greenwich Village
  468. Richard Nixon
    • he began the program of Vietnamization of the war
    • Mad Man Theory-if everyone thinks hes crazy maybe they wouldn't push him around
    • "Peace with Honor" to win the war
    • bombed Cambodia
    • 1973 america, north Vietnam and south Vietnam and the Viet Cong agrees to end the war and the U.S withdrew but the cease fire was broken and south Vietnam fell to north Vietnam
    • 1970 he changed foreign policy that the U.S would not seek partnerships with Communist countries
    • he went to visit China and ended the 20 years of diplomatically isolating China and he began in taking cultural exchanges in trade
    • 1972 he travled to Moscow and signed agreements with the Soviet Union on arms control and trade
    • 1972 he was reelcted but the Watergate scandal erupted shortly after his victory and soon after he resigned the presidency under the threat of impeachment
  469. American Indian Movement
    • 1963 Natiive Americans fed up with the poor conditions on Indian Reservations and the federal govts unwillingness to help
    • 1973 AIM led 200 Sioux in the occupation of Wounded Knee
    • after a ten week stand off with federal authorities, the govt agreed to reexamine Indian treaty rigts and the occupation ended
  470. Henry Kissinger
    • secretary of state during Nixons presidency
    • negotiated with North Vietnam for an end to the Vietnam War
    • helped organize Nixons trips to China and the Sovet Union
    • in the Middle East he helped negotiate a cease fire between Isreal and its neighboors following the Yom Kippuir War abd solidified Isreal's promise to return to Egypt most of the land it had taken during the 1967 war
  471. Kent State
    • 1970 students on college campuses around the country protested the expansion of the Vietnam War into Cambodia
    • at Kent State University the National Guard attempted to quell the rioting students, the guardsmem panicked and shot at rock throwing demonstrators. four students were killed
  472. Pentagon Papers
    • Defense Departments secret history of the Vietnam conflict
    • leaked to the press by formal official Daniel Ellsberg and published by the New York Times in 1971
  473. Southern Strategy
    • major reason for Nixons victory in the 1968 election
    • to gain support in the south Nixon assured southern conservatives that he would slow the federal enforcement of Civil Rights laws and appoint pro southern justices to the Supreme Court
  474. Stagflation
    during Nixons administration the economy experienced inflation and a recession at the same time
  475. detente
    • 1970's the U.S and the Soviet Union began working together to acheive a more orderly restrained competition between each other
    • both countries signed an agreement to limit the number of Intercontinenal Long Range Ballistic Missiles that each country could possess and not to construct antiballistic missile systems
    • also signed new trade agreements
  476. Committee to Reelect the President (CREEP)
    • during Nixons presidency, his administration engaged in a number of immoral acts, such as attempting to steal information and falsely accusing political appointments if sexual improprieties
    • these acts were funded by money illegally contained by CREEP
  477. Watergate
    • Washington apartment and office complex that lent its name to the 1972-1974 scandal of the Nixon administration
    • when his knowlege of the break in at Watergate and subsequent cover up was revealed, Nixon resigned
  478. Gerald Ford
    • Nixons VP and assumed presidency when Nixon resigned
    • he isssued Nixon a pardon for his crimes during the Watergate scandal
    • americas reaction was very negative and they never gained full confiendence in him
    • he resisted congressional pressure to both reduce taxes and increase federal spending which sent the economy into the deepest recession since the Great Depression
    • signed another number of arms control agreements with the Soviet Union
    • heavily criticized following thw collapse of south Vietnam
  479. Jimmy Carter
    • won the 1976 election
    • created the department of energy and eduacation
    • he tried to improve the economy but the recession continued and inflation increased
    • 1978 he brokered a peace agreement between Isreal and Egypt called the Camp David Accords which led to fighting in the middle east and a shortage a fuel in the U.S
    • Soviet invaded Afganistan and Carter responded with the suspension of arms conrol treaty with the Soviets by the halting of grain shipments to the Soviet Union and for a boycott to the Olympic games in Moscow
    • In Iran revolutionaries toppled the shahs govt and seized the american embassy, taking those inside hostage
    • he struggled to get the hostages released and was unable to do so until after he lost the 1980 election to Ronald Reagan
  480. Camp David Accords
    peace agreement between Isreal and Egypt in 1978
  481. Iranian Hostage Crisis
    • 1979 a revolution in Iran placed the Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini a relgious leader into power
    • In Nov 1979 revolutionaries seized the embassy and took those inside as hostages
    • Carter tried pressuring Iran through appeals to the United Nations freezing Iranian assests in the U.S and imposing a trade embargo
    • finally Carter unfroze several billion dollars of Iranian assets and the hostages were released after being held for 444 days but not unil Reagan became president of the U.S
  482. Election of 1972
    • Nixon vs. McGovern
    • Nixon wins
  483. SALT
    Cutdown on Nuclear Missiles
  484. "Christmas Bombing 1972"
    Nixon issued a 12 day carpet bombing affair on North Vietnam by taking out railroads, villages, cities, factories to show South Vietnam that we aren't abandoning them
  485. "Fall of Saigon"
    • April 30th 1975
    • Vietnam War finally ends and the North wins
  486. Hysmky Accords
    • European borders are finally acknowledged
    • Russia will back off on its human rights abuses and will reduce nuclear arms
  487. Gloria Steinem
    • feminist 
    • Journalist 
    • Ms.Magazine for women
    • "Our bodies, ourselves"
    • National Organization for Women
  488. Roe vs. Wade
    • 1973 Supreme Court decision   
    • privacy right in the Constitution 
    • can't tell women what to do with their bodies such as abortion
  489. Rachel Carson
    • wrote "Silent Spring" which was about how chemical were used 
    • created OSHA and the EPA 
    • First Earth Day in 1970-was also the 200th birthday of the U.S
  490. Treaty with Panama
    the U.S gives the Panama Canal back to Panama
  491. Shah Mohammed Reza Pahlavi
    • King of Iran 
    • son of Reza 
    • pro-western, oil-friendly, anti-communist 
    • he has cancer and needs help so Carter admits him
    • the U.S likes him
  492. Mohammad Mossadegh
    • Prime minister of Iran 
    • Nationalizes oil fields that are owned by Great Britain and France 
    • we didn't like him and Reza because he was extravagant, excessive, human rights abuses, high inflations, mishandling of the oil boom, failure to cultivate religious allies and authoritarian control
  493. August 1978 in Iran
    Fire in a cinema and 477 people died by the Shah
  494. Saddam Hussein
    • leader of Iraq that doesn't like Iran 
    • he wanted to take of Iran 
    • invades Iran which leads to the Iraq and Iran War that lasts for 9 years
  495. 1979 2nd energy crisis
    not much fuel and and high prices
  496. The New Right
    tough on crime, strong on national defense, defeat of the ERA, prayer in public schools, opposition to abortion
  497. Election of 1980
    • Ronald Reagan vs. Jimmy Carter 
    • Reagan wins
  498. Ronald Reagan
    • 1980 the former governor and actor of California becomes president 
    • he reduced social spending, cut taxes, and increased defense spending 
    • he cut programs such as school lunches, housing programs, and increasing the federal deficit 
    • 1983 his Reagan economics seemed to be working but in October 1987 the stock market crashed 
    • debt had trippled since Reagan had taken office 
    • he did little about the AIDS/HIV cases 
    • he believed that most of the worlds problems came from the Soviet Union and so he built up arms 
    • 1987 he signed an arms control treaty with the Soviet Union 
    • he authorized covert CIA operations in Central America 
    • 1986 the Iran Contra scandal came to light which revealed arms sales were being conducted with Iran in a partial exchange for the release of hostages in Lebanon, the arms money was being used to aid the Contras
  499. Moral Majority
    Televangelist Jerry Falwall's political lobbying organization, the name of which became synonymous with the religious right-conservative Evangelical protestants who helped ensure Reagans victory in 1980
  500. Reaganomics
    Reagan's philosophy of "supply side" economics, which combined tax cuts, less govt spending, and a balanced budget with an unregulated marketplace
  501. Phyllis Schlafly
    • she was a right wing republican activist who spearheaded the feminist movement
    • she believed feminists were "anti-family, anti-children, pro-abortion" 
    • worked aganist equal rights amendment for women and civil rights protections for gays
  502. Contras
    • Reagan administration ordered the CIA to train and supply guerilla bands of anti communists Nicaraguans called Contras
    • were fighting the Sandinista govt that had currently come to power in Nicaragua
    • the state department believed that the Sandinista govt was supplying the leftist Salvadoran rebels with Soviet and Cuban arms
    • a cease fire agreement between the Contras and the Sandinistas was signed in1988
  503. Sandinistas
    • Cuban sponsored govt that came to power in Nicaragua after toppling a corrupt dictator
    • the state department believed that the Sandinistas were supplying the leftist Salvadoran rebels with Cuban and Soviet arms
    • the Reagan administration ordered the CIA to train and supply guerrilla bands of anti communist Nicaraguans called contras
    • cease fire agreement was signed in 1988
  504. Geraldine Ferraro
    • 1984 presidential election democratic nominee, Walter Mondale chose her as her running mate 
    • as a member of the U.S House of Representatives from NY
    • first woman to be a vice presidential nominee for a major political party
    • however she was placed on the defense because her husbands complicates business dealings
  505. Iran-Contra Affair
    sandal of the second Reagan administration involving the sale of arms to Iran in partial exchange for the release of hostages in Lebanon and the use of the arms money to aid the Contras in Nicaragua, which had been forbidden by Congress
  506. HIV/AIDS
    • HIV-virus that attacks the T-cells which are necessary to help the immune system fight off infection and disease 
    • AIDS- occurs after the HIV virus has destroyed the bodies immune system 
    • it is transferred through blood or semen 
    • appeared in america in the 1980's and the Reagan administration was slow to respond because effects of it were still not fully understood and they deemed the spread of the disease as the result of immoral behavior
  507. Mikhail Gorbachev
    • in the 1980's he was the soviet leader who attempted to reform the soviet union through his programs of Perestroika and Galsnost
    • he persued a renewel of Detante with america and signed new arms control agreements with Reagan 
    • chose not to involve the soviet union in international affairs of other communist countries which removed the threat of armed soviet crackdowns on reformers and protesters in eastern europe 
    • eventually the political social and economic upheavel he had unleashed would lead to the breakup of the soviet union
  508. Jesse Jackson
    • African American civil rights activist who had been one of MLK's chief lieutenants
    • founded the Social Justice organization the Rainbow coalition 
    • 1988 ran for the democratic presidential nomination between him and Michael Dukakis 
    • Dukakis won nomination but lost the election the George H W. Bush
  509. George H.W. Bush
    • he served as vice president under Ronald Reagan, and won the presidential election of 1980
    • promised not to raise taxes however the federal deficit had become so big that he had to raise taxes 
    • fighting illegal drugs was his priority 
    • he created the office of national drug control policy but was only moderately successful in stopping drug use 
    • 1989 he ordered the invasion of panama to capture the leader Manuel Moriega  , who was wanted in America on drug charges 
    • eventually captured and convicted 
    • in 1990 Sudan Hussein invaded kuwait and bush sent the american military to Saudi Arabia on a defensive mission 
    • launched operation desert storm which took Kuwait back from Hussein in 1991 
    • the U.S went into a recession and lost presidential election in 1992 to William Clinton
    • he was president when the berlin wall falls, that ends the cold war
  510. Glasnost
    a loosening of censorship
  511. Perestroika
    reconstructing the state bureaucracy reducing the privileges of the political elite and shifting from from a centrally planned economy to a mixed economy in Soviet Union
  512. Sudan Hussein
    • Former dictator of Iraq who became the head of state in 1979 
    • 1980 he invaded Iran and started the 8 year Iran-Iraq war
    • 1990 he invaded Kuwait which caused the gulf war of 1991 
    • in 2003 he was overthrown and captured when the united states invaded 
    • sentence to death of hanging in 2006
  513. Operation Desert Shield
    • after Sudan Hussein invaded kuwait in 1990 president Bush sent american military forces to Saudi Arabia on a defensive mission 
    • when the mission changed to the retaking of Kuwait, the operation was renamed Desert Storm
  514. Operation Desert Storm
    multinational allied force that defeated iraq in the gulf war of january 1991
  515. 1980's Entertainment
    • we paid for entertainment 
    • played pac-man/Donkey Kong
    • 1983 George Lucas Star Wars this started the selling of action figures after movies
  516. Youth Culture Of 1980's
    • MTV, introduction to the Walkman, VCR, Rent movies from local stores, home video systems 
    • 1984 Apple launches its first computer
  517. Strategic Defense Initiative
    • Space based laser system to shoot out any unwanted objects in the sky 
    • but it was never built
  518. The economy in the 1980's
    • 75% of jobs are related to service 
    • service economy
    • examples) doctors, lawyers, bankers, teachers, accountants, cashiers, and judges
    • other countries produced, and we managed
  519. Bad for Reagan
    • deep recession 
    • low GNP, unemployment over 10%, 30% of U.S industrial plants closed 
    • national debt tripled 
    • the gap between the rich and the poor broadened
    • low semi skilled jobs cut or moved to other countries
  520. Good for Reagan
    • Recession curved our Runway to inflation 
    • 1984 U.S eneters a period of sustained economic growth
    • tax cuts= consumer spending 
    • GNP raised 4.2% in a year 
    • inflation between 3% and 5%
  521. Election of 1984
    • Modale (D) Vs. Reagan (REPUB) 
    • Reagan wins
  522. Reagan Doctrine
    • Africa, Asia, And latin America 
    • U.S will pay and support Democratic rebels in these countries to fight against communism
  523. Reykjauik 1984
    • drew down nuclear weapons by 50% 
    • was agreement between Gorbachev and Reagan
  524. Election of 1988
    • Bush (Repub) vs Dukakis (D)
    • Bush wins
  525. Savings and Loan Crisis
    Bad financial decisions
  526. START (Strategic Arms Reduction Treaty)
    Treaty with the Soviet Union to end Nuclear arms
  527. William Jefferson Clinton
    • Governor of Arkansas who won the 1992 presidential election against incumbent president bush 
    • Tax increase, economic stimulus package,adoption of the NATO, Welfare reform, raised the minimum wage and improved public access to health insurance 
    • 1996 he defeated presidential candidate Bob Dole 
    • 1998 he was revealed to have a sexual affair with a white house intern 
    • Clinton had Lied about the affair and tried to cover it up, which led to a vote to impeach clinton, but found not guilty 
    • 1994 he used U.S forces to restore Haiti's democratically elected president to power after he was ousted during a coup 
    • 1995 CLinton administration negotiated the Dayton Accords which stopped the ethnic strife in the former Yugoslavia and the Balkin region 
    • Clinton sponsored peace talks between arabs and the Jews, which culminated in Israeli prime minister and the Palestine leader signing the Oslo Accords in 1993, which provided for the restoration of Palestinian self role in specific areas in exchange for peace as provided in UN security counsel resolutions
  528. Al Gore
    • He was senator of Tennessee 
    • Clintons vice president 
    • In the 2000 presidential election he was a democratic candidate for the presidential election.
    • and campaigned on preserving social security subsidizing prescription medicine, expenses for the elderly and protecting the environment 
    • the close election came down to florida's electoral votes 
    • the final tally in florida gave Bush a slight lead but it was so small that a recount was required by state law 
    • while the votes were being recounted, a legal battle was being waged to stop the recount
    • finally case Bush vs Gore was presented to the Supreme Court who ruled 5-4 to stop the recount and bush was declared the winner
  529. North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA)
    • approved in 1993 NAFTA with Canada and Mexico allowed goods to travel across their borders free of tariffs
    • critics argued that american workers would loose their jobs to cheaper mexican labor
  530. Newt Gingrich
    • He led the republican insurgency in congress
    • in the mid 1990's throw mobilizing religious and social conservatives
    • created the contract with America which was a 10 point anti big government program 
    • however, the program fizzled out after many bills were not passed by congress.
  531. dot-coms
    • in the late 1990's the stock market soared to new heights
    • economic success was based on dot-com enterprises which were firms specializing in computers, software, telecommunications, and the internet
    • however many of the companies stock market values were driven higher by speculation instead of financial success 
    • eventually the stock market bubble burst
  532. Ethnic Cleansing
    • act of killing an entire group of people in a region or a country B/C of its ethnic background 
    • after the collapse of the former Yugoslavia in 1991 serbs in Bosnia attacked communities of Muslims which led to intervention by the United Nations 
    • 1998 fighting broke out in the balkans between serbia and Kosovo
    • serbian police and military attacked, killed, raped, or forced muslim albanian Kosovar's to leave their homes
  533. George W. Bush
    • 2000 presidential election, Texas Governor ran as a republican nominee against Al Gore.
    • After september 11 terrorist attacks, he launched his war on terrorism 
    • Bush Doctrine which claimed the right to launch preemptive military attacks against enemies 
    • the UNited States invaded Afghanistan and Iraq 
    • 2006 hurricane Katrina struck the gulf coast and UN attacked for the unpreparedness of the federal government to handle the disaster as well as his slowness to react 
    • September 2008 the nations economy collapsed  as a credit crunch spiraled into a global economic meltdown 
    • he signed into law the bank bailout fund called Troubled Asset Relief Program but the economy did not improve
    • endorsed the federal marriage amendment 
    • tried to privatize social security and passed a partial birth abortion ban act 
    • he gave 15 billion to AIDS relief efforts in Africa
  534. Bush vs. Gore
    • Close 2000 presidential election came down to florid as decisive 25 electoral votes 
    • final tally in florida gave bush a slight lead, but it was so small a recount was required by state law 
    • while the votes were being recounted, a legal battle was being waged in the supreme court who ruled 5-4 to stop the recount and bush was declared the winner
  535. No Child left behind
    • President Bush's education reform plan that required states to set and meet learning standards for students and make sure that all students were proficient in reading and writing by 2014 
    • states had to submit annual reports of students standardized test scores 
    • teachers required to be proficient in subject.
    • schools who showed no progress would face sanctions
    • states criticized the lack of funding fir remedial programs and noted the poor school districts would find it very difficult to meet the new guidelines
  536. September 11
    • September 11, 2001 islamic terrorists, who were members of al Qaeda terrorist organization, highjacked four commercial airliners
    • two were flown into the world trade center and the third into the pentagon and one landed in a open field in Pennsylvania by passengers on board overthrowing the terrorists 
    • Bush launched his war on Terrorism 
    • invaded Afganistan after they would not turn over Al Queada's leader Osama Bin Laden
    • Bush created the office of homeland security and the transportation security administration
    • passed the U.S.A Patriot Act which allowed government agencies to try suspected terrorists in secret military courts and eavesdropped on confidential conversations
  537. Osama Bin Laden
    was the founder of al-Qaeda, the Sunni militant Islamistorganization that claimed responsibility for the September 11 attacks on the United States, along with numerous other mass-casualty attacks against civilian and military targets. He was a Saudi Arabian, a member of the wealthy bin Laden family, and an ethnic Yemeni Kindite
  538. Taliban
    • a coalition of Ultraconservative Islamists who rose to power in Afghanistan after the Soviets withdrew 
    • Taliban leaders gave Osama Bin laden a safe haven in their country in exchange for aid in fighting the northern alliance who were rebels opposed to the Taliban 
    • after sept 11 attacks the U.S asked the Taliban to turn over Bin Laden 
    • after they refused, america invaded Afghanistan, but bin Laden evaded capture
  539. The "Surge"
    • early 2007 president bush decided he would send a surge of new troops to Iraq and implement a new strategy 
    • U.S forces would shift there focus form offensive operations to the prosecution of Iraq, Civilians to attacks by terrorist insurgents and sectarian Militias 
    • while the Surge reduced the violence in Iraq, Iraqi leaders were still unable to develop a self sustaining democracy
  540. Hillary Rodham Clinton
    • in the 2008 presidential election, the spouse of former president Bill Clinton, she was the frontrunner for the democratic nomination, which made her the first woman with a serious chance to win the presidency 
    • however, Obamas internet based and grassroots oriented campaign garnered him enough delegates to win the nomination 
    • Obama appointed her secretary of state
    • pushed universal health care
  541. Barack Obama
    • the 2008 presidential election, his economic philosophy with the country bad financial state, he promoted a message of change and politics of Hope, which resonated with the voters
    • won the presidency, and became the countries first person of color to be president
    • first issue of 2008 was what to do with the economy, so he initiated stimulus's and bails out banks and GM (General Motors)
    • don't ask don't tell is repealed and DOMA is found unconstitutional
  542. American Recovery and Reinvestment Act
    • Obama sighed this 787 billion economic stimulus bill in february 2009
    • included cash distribution to states, funds for food stamps, unemployment benefits, construction projects to renew the nations infrastructure, funds for renewable energy systems and tax reductions
  543. Election of 1992
    • Clinton vs George Bush
    • Clinton wins election
  544. Debt
    how much money you owe
  545. Deficit
    • Difference between how much money you make and how much money you spend 
    • too many years running on a deficit increases your debt
  546. Taxes in the 1990's
    • middle class taxes were raised 
    • poor taxes were lowered 
    • small business tax cuts were available
  547. "Don't ask Don't tell"
    was the official United States policy on gays serving in the military as of the December 21, 1993 Department of Defense Directive 1304.26, which went into effect February 28, 1994,[1] to September 20, 2011. The policy (not law) prohibited military personnel from discriminating against or harassing closeted homosexual or bisexual service members or applicants, while barring openly gay, lesbian, or bisexual persons from military service
  548. DOMA (defense of Marriage act)
    marriage was only between a man and a woman
  549. The Brady Bill
    5 day waiting period for purchase of handguns
  550. Ominous Crime Bill
    extended the death penalty even if it didn't involve murder
  551. Family and Medical Leave act
    time of when a baby is born
  552. GE
    • Big labor
    • Big business 
    • Big Unions
    • Linked to communism
  553. Different Names for Communists
    commie, pinko, red, comrade, sympathizer, socialist, Bolshevist, marxist, stalinist, leninist, maoist
  554. J. Edgar Hoover
    • Head of the FBI
    • Join when it is an investigative division 
    • only job, joins in 1917- with it till death in 1970's 
    • professionalizes the FBI, physical tests, intelligence tests, aptitude tests
  555. HUAC (House un-Americanm Activities Committee)
    • investigate Anti- American activités in America's Big nation 
    • 1938- Hearings about loyalty 
    • 1945- subpoena power , file reports, draw paperwork
    • Supported but Feared
  556. Hollywood 10
    • investigated hollywood for actors, who were accused of Communist ties 
    • Were very aggressive and angry in response
  557. Committee for the First Amendment
    • Formed by actors and directors, saying how they cannot do their jobs with HUAC over their shoulders 
    • backed off when some actors actually had ties to communism
  558. Blacklist
    • list of actors that could not get work B/C of ties to communism 
    • 1947- Truman soft on communism 
    • attempted to be strong on communism by making all employees go through background check to make sure they were not communist
  559. Alger Hiss
    • Bostonian, Johns Hopkins , Harvard Law, clerks in the supreme court, then joins law firms, moves to the justice department, goes to Yalta conference, helps pan united Nations 
    • 1948- accused of being a communist by Whittaker Chambers 
    • Then hiss says Chambers was a spy and a communist
  560. Whittaker Chambers
    • Former communist party member
    • attended Columbia University
    • found writings on Vladimir Lenin 
    • joins U.S courier, number of affairs, ten year chief editor 
    • Claims Alger Hiss is a Party member, provides notes from Hiss's handwritings
  561. Chambers vs. Hiss
    • 1st trial- Deadlock
    • 2nd trial-  Hiss convicted of perjury, 5 years in prision
  562. Klaus Fuchs
    • British Physicist
    • admits to being a communist spy
  563. Harry Gold
    was a laboratory chemist who was convicted of being the “courier” for a number of Soviet spy rings during the Manhattan Project.
  564. David Greenglass
    David Greenglass was an atomic spy for the Soviet Union who worked on the Manhattan project. He provided testimony that helped convict his sister and brother-in-law Ethel and Julius Rosenberg, who were executed for their spying activity
  565. Julius and Ethel Rosenberg
    United States citizens convicted of conspiracy to commit espionage during a time of war, and executed. Their charges were related to the passing of information about the atomic bomb to the Soviet Union
  566. Counter Intelligence Program
    Investigate anyone who sympathizes with the soviet union, or is a threat to national security
  567. CBS in the 1950's
    • Put communist hearings on television
    • first trials to be televised
  568. Army McCarthy Hearings
    The Army–McCarthy hearings were a series of hearings held by the United States Senate's Subcommittee on Investigations between April 1954 and June 1954
  569. Ruby Ridge
    • militia movement thats anti government, stocking weapons and taxes
    • religious cult 
    • accused of stocking weapons and child abuse 
    • compound burned to the ground
  570. Oklahoma City Bombing
    • April 19, 1995 
    • van parked outside a building, homemade bomb
    • blew up and killed people
  571. Columbine School Shooting
    • April 20, 1999
    • two teens that were clinically depressed open fire on the high school
  572. 1996 Election
    • Clinton vs. Dole
    • Clinton wins
  573. Internet
    • around in the 1960's in the army to share information 
    • eventually taken over by education researchers and became popular at the end of the 90's 
    • .BOOM- financial industry grew 
    • .CRASH- invested money into the internet, and the dot-coms crash led to a small recession in 2001
  574. Y2K
    Fear world would end, because all the computers would crash when it changed from 1999 to 2000
  575. National Security Agency (NSA)
    the same protections as the FBI
  576. Iraq War
    • March 20, 2003 
    • because Sudan Hussein was manufacturing weapons of mass destruction
  577. Election of 2004
    • Bush Vs. John Kerry 
    • Bush wins
  578. Election of 2008
    • Barack Obama (D) vs John Mccain (repub)
    • Obama wins
  579. Sarah Palin
    • republican vice presidential candidate in 2008
    • Alaska's Governor
    • she did not grasp foreign or domestic policies 
    • and did not speak well
  580. Financial Collapse of 2008
    • housing price bubble sets whole thing off 
    • government, banking industry, and regular people to blame
  581. Government in 2008
    deregulation, low interest rates, and over leveraged
  582. Homeowners in 2008
    • Growth of the Housing bubble
    • over leveraged
    • bought houses they could not afford
  583. Banking Industry in 2008
    • Sub Prime and predatory lending 
    • over leveraged 
    • and the collapse of the shadow banking system ( loans to buy securities/short term money, which means they owe more than they can pay the house for ) 
    • banks have money to lend 
    • banks lend lots of money to a person that dosen't have a chance of paying it back
  584. Reasons why the Economy collapsed in 2008
    • they encouraged home ownership
    • overvaluation of securities 
    • predatory lending 
    • thought housing prices would continue to rise 
    • short term deals privileged over long term value creation 
    • no government oversight 
    • not enough cash from banks and insurance companies back to the deals they were making
  585. Dodd- Frank
    • finance and banking and regulatory reform 
    • brought the most significant changes to financial regulation in the United States since the regulatory reform that followed the Great Depression.
    • made changes in the American financial regulatory environment that affect all federal financial regulatory agencies and almost every part of the nation's financial services industry
  586. Rise of the Tea Party
    concerned with the economy, they wanted to lower taxes, debt, deficit, and stop spending
  587. Representative John Boehner
    • speaker of the house
    • house shifts to republican rule
  588. Mitch Connell
    Senate minority leader from Kentucky
  589. Occupy Wall Street Movement
    name given to a protest movement that began on September 17, 2011, in Zuccotti Park, located in New York City's Wall Street financial district
  590. Arab Spring
    is a term for the revolutionary wave of demonstrations and protests(both non-violent and violent), riots, and civil wars in the Arab world that began on 18 December 2010
  591. War on Terror
    • war in Afghanistan 2001-? (U.S longest war EVER)
    • war in Iraq 2003-2011
  592. Election of 2012
    • Mitt Romney vs Barack Obama 
    • Obama Wins 
    • election entirely about the economy
  593. Affordable Care Act (Obamacare)
    United States federal statute signed into law by President Barack Obama on March 23, 2010. Together with the Health Care and Education Reconciliation Act it represents the most significant regulatory overhaul of the U.S. healthcare system since the passage of Medicare and Medicaid in 1965
  594. Job Approval 2013
    • Obama 40% 
    • U.S congress 9% (Lowest approval Rating ever)