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- Born 384 (died 322) BCE on Macedonian frontier
- In Athens, a metic.(someone who lives in Athens, but is not a citizen)
- Connections: Plato, Alexander
Rhetoric is a teachable discipline that teaches adaptation in order to successfully persuade in specific situations.
By Aristotle (Aristotle's Rhetoric)
- 40 years of Aristotle's lecture notes
- Greatly detailed, not without internal contradictions
- Three books (later divided into chapters and sections)
- Book 1: Uses, definition, proofs, topoi, 3 kinds of discourse
- Book 2: Specialized topoi for ethos, pathos, and audience type; common topoi, enthymemes and example
- Book 3: Delivery, style, and arrangement
- Dialectic uses rhetoric. Rhetoric is not logic while dialectic is a philosophical logic. They are both important for truths.
Relationship of dialectic and rhetoric:
- Rhetoric is a counterpart to dialectic: -Communicating with an audience
- -Dialectic is more one on one. And uses rhetoric.
- -Rhetoric is not logic. Dialectic is a heart of logic.
- -Sagacity, character, goodwill
- -Must be built through the speech itself
- -Prior reputation considered
- -Ethical agreement with audience
- -State of mind
- -Explores/exploits the who, what, where
- -Emotional continuums
- -Temporal & spatial proximity, imagination
Rhetorical appeals: Logos
- -Appeal to reason
- -Enthymeme (leading them there, but don't flat out say it) (deductive/inductive
- -Topoi (28 ways to construct an argument)
Style & Delivery
- Style: language
- Delivery: tone, physical, the way you execute language.
- -The proper use of voice, gesture, and motion.
Types of Rhetoric
Types of Rhetoric: Deliberative
- -"High" rhetoric with little to no trickery
- -End: happiness or harm
- -Of general interest
- -Looking to the future
Types of Rhetoric: Forensic
- -Trickery possible with accusation/defense
- -End: action as just or unjust
- -Concentrates on specific situation
- -Looking to the past
Types of Rhetoric: Epideictic
- -End: honor or disgrace
- -Of general interest
- -Look at the present
Syntheses & Conflicts
- -Rhetoric in Greece was about being oral, speeches and today it's more than that.
- -Isocrates, Plato, Aristotle= need to know what they are about
- -Isocrates -> it's impossible to teach someone to be good, it's innate ability is most important. He's more of a writer-diverging from mainstream rhetoric of the time.