exam week 8

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  1. what are the structures of the upper respiratory
    • mouth
    • nose
    • pharynx
    • larynx
    • epiglottis
  2. what are the parts of the lower respiratory system
    • trachea
    • lungs
    • bronchi
    • bronchioles
    • alveoli
    • pulmonary capillary network
    • pleural membranes
  3. What are the special functions of the nose?
    air enterers the nose where it is warmed, humidified and filtered
  4. what is special about the larynx?
    • voice box, forms speech
    • it is made of cartilage and identified on the outside as the Adam's apple
  5. what is the special feature of the epiglottis?
    • it is the gatekeeper
    • it is open when you breath but closed when you eat or drink
  6. what factors effect ventilation?
    • clear airways
    • intact CNS and respiratory (medulla & pons)
    • intact thoracic cavity
    • pulmonary compliance & recoil
  7. how does clear airway effect ventilation?
    when mucous builds up it blocks the pathway to alveoli and slows or stops gas exchange
  8. how do drugs effect ventilation
    decrease the respiratory rate ND Cuse CNS depresion
  9. tidal volume
    amount of air in and out in 1 breath
  10. Eupnea
    normal/good breathing
  11. tachypnea
    fast/rapid breathing
  12. Bradypnea
  13. slow respiratory rate
  14. apnea
    • without
    • stop breathing
  15. hyperventilation
    increasing # of breaths
  16. Cheyne-Stokes breathing
    • waning and waxing
    • very deep, very shallow and stop breathing (apnea)
  17. Biot's breathing
    shallow breaths interrupted by apnea
  18. Orthopnea
    inability to breath easily unless sitting up
  19. Dyspnea
    • difficultly breathing
    • SOB
  20. exacerbation
    when symptoms reappear
  21. how does alveoli gas exchange occure?
    diffusion of O2 from alveoli to pulmonary blood vessels.
  22. what is diffusion?
    movement of gases from an area of higher pressure to an area of lower pressure
  23. What is Partial Pressure?
    the pressure exerted by each individual gas in a mixture according to its concentration in the mixture
  24. what is partial pressure of Oxygen in the Alveoli?
  25. what is the partial pressure of Carbon Dioxide in the pulmonary capillaries?
    45mmHg (PCO2)
  26. What is the partial pressure of Oxygen in the pulmonary capillaries?
    60mmHg (PO2)
  27. What is the partial pressure of Carbon Dioxide in the Alveoli?
    40mmHg (PCO2)
  28. What factors affect the transportation of O2 from the lungs to the tissues of the body
    • Cardiac Output
    • # of RBCs and Erythrocytes
    • Exercise
  29. How does Cardiac Output affect transportation of O2  from the lungs to the tissue?
    when CO decreases, the transportation of O2 to the tissues will decrease. the O2 goes through the blood stream to the tissues so if the Heart is not pumping the O2 has now way to get there
  30. how does the # of RBCs and erythrocytes affect the transportation of O2?
    • too many RBC/erythrocytes would increase blood viscosity making the blood too thick to flow easliy
    • too little would not give the O2 enough rides to the tissue (o2 attaches to the RBC)
  31. how does exercise affect the transportation of O2  from the lungs to the tissues?
    CO increases and cell metabolism increases
  32. hos is carbon dioxide transported from the tissues to the lungs?
    • it is transported in 3 ways
    • carried inside RBC back to lungs
    • combines with hgb
    • transported in a solution in the plasma carbonic acid
  33. how is the majority of CO2 transported from the tissue to the lungs?
    65% is carried in the RBCs as bicarbonate back to the lungs
  34. How is a moderate number of CO2 transported from the tissue to the lung?
    30% combines with Hgb as carbhemoglobin for transport back to the lungs
  35. how is the smallest amout of CO2 transported from the tissue to the lung?
    5% transported in a solution in thee plasma as carbonic acid a compound formed when Co2 mixes with water
  36. how do healthy peoples bodies know when to breath?
    Medulla Oblongata senses increased CO2 and tells the body to increase RR and depth
  37. how do people with COPD or emphysema know when to breath?
    • to carotid and aortic bodies sense decrease O2 levels and tell body to breath
    • (the CNS gets used to increased CO2)
  38. what is a "code" or "code blue"?
    • cardiac arrest
    • Respiratory arrest
    • start CPR immediately
  39. how should nurse respond if they find pt in resp arrest
    start CPR
  40. what clinical manifestations of hypoxia
    • tachycardia
    • slow, rapid respirations/dyspnea
    • restlessness/ lightheadedness
    • flaring of nares
    • substernal or intercostal reactions
    • cyanosis/central cyanosis/peripheral cyanosis
  41. when might a patient who is experiencing hypoxemia not have cyanosis?
    severely anemic
  42. when would you expect to see finger clubbing?
    after long term lack of O2 in arterial blood supply
  43. what nursing Dx would be appropriate for the various oxygenation alterations
    • impaired gas exchange
    • activity intolerance
    • anxiety
  44. what are specific things nurses implement in order to help the client reach their goals r/t oxygenation
    • frequent position changes
    • position pt for maximum chest expansion
    • suction airway
    • promote comfort (pain meds/antianxiety meds)
    • Ambulation
    • Deep breathing
    • coughing
    • hydration
    • Meds (bronchiodilator, steroids, expectorant, digoxin O2)
  45. Define Hemoglobin
    red pigment in blood that carries Oxygen
  46. define hematocrit
    % of blood that is erythrocytes
  47. what is cardiac output?
    the amount of blood pumped in one min
  48. what is incentive spirometry
    • a device used to: improve pulmonary ventilation
    • counteract the effects of anesthesia or hypoventilation
    • loosen respiratory secretions
    • facilitate respiratory gaseous exchange
    • expand collapsed alveoli
  49. controlled breathing and coughing exercises
    • Pursed lip breathing (alleviate dyspnea)
    • controlled and huff coughing
    • Diaphragmatic breathing
  50. what are the different types of SMIs?
    • Flow oriented
    • Volume Oriented
  51. describe pursed lip breathing
    • exhale through pursed lips
    • more exchange (alveoli stays open longer because pursed lips slow the exhale)
    • if cant purse lips breath through hand/fist
  52. describe normal forceful coughing
    inhale deep and cough 2 time while exhaling
  53. describe exhalation through pursed lips (huff)
    breath deep and exhale through pursed lips during mid exhalation make huff sound/cough
  54. what are safety issues regarding Oxygen?
    • O2 is an accelerant
    • no smoking
    • nothing with spark or static
  55. what are the different types or o2 delivery systems
    • Cannula
    • Face Mask
    • Face Tent
    • transtracheal catheter
    • Oxygen Hood
    • Oxygen Tent
    • Bag Valve Mask
    • Artificial Airways
  56. what is FiO2?
    friction of inspired oxygen
  57. what is an ambu bag?
    pushes o2 into the lungs
  58. how many liters of o2 should Ambu bag be connected to?
    flow rate
  59. what are the parts to a tracheostomy
    • curved trach tube
    • outer cannula-inserted in trachea
    • flange- rests against the neck and secures it in place
    • obturator- used to insert outer cannula then removed
    • inner cannula-inserted inside and locked in place
    • cuffed trach tubes have a air filled cuff to aspiration and air leakage
  60. which methods require sterile suctioning?
    sterile is recommended for all, but some places use clean for oropharynx and nasopharynx

    Nasotracheal requires Sterile
  61. transporting chest tube pt
    • keep the water seal unit below chest level and upright
    • Disconnect the drainage system from suction and make sure the vent is open
    • use standard precautions PPE
Card Set:
exam week 8
2013-10-07 03:19:27
nursing 102

test week 8
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