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Rhetoric in Medieval Times
- Hierarchy (Control) (somebody in power talking to people with no power in written rhetoric)
- Oral -> written
- -There was a change of government. Political people had little power therefore there was no need for political speeches anymore.
- The rhetorical appeals
- -less logos -> more pathos
- -ethos takes a different turn in written word
- Decline in Rhetoric
- -Thomas Aquinas believed that invention and crafting your own work isn't important but understanding God's argument/work is.
Rhetoric and Religion
- Civic -> Religious (Preaching)
- The problem of pagan Aristotle
- -Greek=Pagan, Romans wanted to detach themselves completely
- Rhetoric, by any other name..
- Conventions & etiquette
- -important in letter writing
- Influence of the pope
- -the pope began writing more epistles to the people which heavily influenced writing
- Emphasis of practice & application
- -there is no great grand theory
- Categorized styles
- -Important to know characteristics of who you're writing to--your peer, superior, inferior
- -playing into hierarchical structure
- Hugh of Bologna
- -Slow shift from moving from written to oral
What was "born" and what was "reborn"?
- Idea of connecting periods and cultures with periods and cultures of rhetoric
- Renaissance is a period of time of working and learning in your vernacular language which is a language that’s not Latin. If you're in England, it's revolutionary to be studying English. Which changes the idea of rhetoric from being about arguments to just the nature of language.
- Petrarch: You take some, you leave some.
- Wore leaves on his head -> hat :)Father of humanism
- Poet, writer
- Petrarch resisted the medieval change in rhetoric saying "take the good and leave the bad. there are still things to be learned from the evil pagans."
- Machiavelli: Appearance is everything
- as a speaker you need to move the audience and figure out the context
- you must address the audience as you want them to be/feel
- ex: "Treat them like they're already angry at the cause."
- Manipulating the audience into thinking they feel that way. Believed rhetoric plays a large role in obtaining and retaining power rather than seeking perfection. Also believed rhetoric and ethics are separated famously claiming “the ends justify the means”.
- Divided Virtues into Two Categories:
- Primary Virtues: Intangible
- Secondary Virtues: Tangible
- Dante: believed in a Christian version of Plato's noumenal world
- there are divine truths inside you inspired by god that you must seek out
- he saw language as a problem -> an insufficient way of expressing divine truth from inside
- language evolves and does not remain stagnant
- believed we learned through imitation ->innately human to imitate to learn -> we model our life after Adam and Eve
- Dichotomies (bad rap in the school system)nothing ever crossed paths, everything should have it's own path
- forcing rhetoric to not have substance but being a shell of what is different
- Catholicism -> Protestantism he has a lot of charts and graphs (about separation) which is why his system became popular because it was simple to teach
- reduced rhetoric to style and delivery alone -> not much at all of this is happening today
- Martyr for the cause"
- Mere" rhetoric
Rhetoric & Religion 2.0
- Martin Luther
- John Calvin
- Danger in debate
- Religion, Rhetoric, and the State
Rhetoric & Religion 2.0:
- he was a fan of rhetoric -> it's important to be able to communicate to people through writing since they need to be able to read the bible
- elevated rhetoric to be embraced in a Christian setting
Rhetoric &Religion 2.0:
- Spiritual power v. rhetorical power
- he said no to rhetoric -> thought rhetorical power was evil and false
- If you're only able to sway people through rhetoric it's not true Linked rhetoric to paganism
Danger in debate
- lots of reformations and violence in Europe at the time
- lots of religious stuff was argued publicly