Histology

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Author:
mct
ID:
239134
Filename:
Histology
Updated:
2013-10-06 21:50:52
Tags:
Epithelium
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Description:
Histo review
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  1. 3 important things about the epithelium
    • 1. The body is lined, externally and internally by epithelium
    • 2. Nothing enters or leaves the body without passing through an epithelium
    • 3. Since epithelia in different parts of the body have different functions they have different appearances that reflect these functions.
  2. Epithelium Features (6)
    • Cell to cell adhesion
    • Basal surface -> sits on basement membrane
    • Apical surface -> faces 'external' environment
    • Avascular/richly innervated
    • Constant turnover/cell division (need a constant barrier to external world)
    • Surface specialization (microvilli/cilia)
  3. Epithelium Function (5)
    • Physical protection
    • Controls fluid flow/barrier
    • Actively moves fluids across surface/Absorption
    • Produce specialized secretions (glandular epithelium)
    • Provide sensation/conduction - neuroepithelia
  4. Types of epithelial cells
    • Simple squamous
    • Simple cuboidal
    • Simple columnar
    • Stratified squamous
    • Stratified colomnar
    • Pseudostratified columnar
    • Transitional
  5. Where do you find Epithelium?
    • Skin stratified squamous
    • Trachea psuedostratified columnar with cilia and goblet cells
    • Blood vessels simple squamous
    • Alveoli simple squamous
    • Gut simple cuboidal/columnar
    • Bladder transitional
    • Esophagus stratified squamous
  6. Integument system
    Skin (Epdermis, Dermis, Hypodermis/Subcutis)
  7. Integument Epithelium/Epidermis
    • Stratified Squamous Epithelium
    • Most epidermal cells are keratinocytes: keratinocytes undergo progressive cornification
    • Remember: Cell-to-cell adhesion, sits on basement membrane, avascular, and continually renewing.
  8. Layers of Epidermis
    • Stratum corneum
    • Stratum lucidum
    • Stratum Granulosum/Germinativum
    • Stratum Spinosum
    • Stratum Basale
    • Basement Membrane
  9. Epidermis cell types
    • Keratinization
    • Accessory Cells (melanocytes, merkel cells, and Langerhans cells)
  10. Keratinization
    • Basal layer keratinocytes mature: rate determines thickness; thickness dependent on mechanical exposure (calluses)
    • Undergo apoptosis
    • Produce Stratum Corneum
  11. Accessory Cells
    • Melanocytes (S. Basale): pigment (melanosomes)
    • Merkel Cells (S. Basale): Somoatosensory end organs
    • Langerhans cells (S. Spinosum): immunity cells (Dendritic Antigen Presenting Cells)
  12. Parts of the Skin
    • Hair shaft
    • Pore of sweat gland duct
    • Sebaceous gland
    • Arrector pili muscle
    • Sweat gland duct
    • Hair follicle
    • Nerve fibers
    • Sweat gland
    • Artery
    • Vein
  13. Type of Glands (5)
    • Sweat Gland (Apocrine)
    • Sebaceous Gland (Holocrine)
    • Mammary (Apocrine)
    • Anal/Scent
    • Uropygeal/Sebaceous Glands (avian)
  14. Tubular vs Acinar glands
    • Simple tubular
    • Simple coiled tubular
    • Simple branched tubular
    • Simple acinar
    • Simple Branched acinar

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