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- Vav used as a conjunction and can make the "v" sound (/v/) or the "u" sound (/u/). If it's used with other prefixes, this is always the first prefix.
- וְהוּא vehu (and he)
- וּבַיוֹם uvayom (and on the day)
in, on, with, by, etc.
Bet used as a prefix makes a "b" sound (/b/), the hard sound, though sometimes makes the "v" sound (/v/), the soft sound.
- בְּרֵאשִׁית bereishit - (in the beginning)
- וּבַיוֹם uvayom - (and on the day: note that the ve (on) combines with the ha (the) to become va (on the)).
- like, as
- וּמִי כְּעַמְךָ?
- umi keamkha? (and who is like your nation?)
- to, for
- לַאָרֶץ la'aretz (to the land)
מִמִּצְרַיִם mimitzrayim (from Egypt)
Definite article - the
- If He is used with other prefixes, the He is always the last prefix before the root. When used with the Bet, Kaf or Lamed prepositional prefix it is omitted; instead the vowel on the preposition is changed. (see second example).
- הָעוֹלָם haolam - (theuniverse)
- וּבַיוֹם uvayom- (and on theday: note that the ve (on) combines with the ha (the) to become va (on the)).
ה (He) Interrogative
- Used to indicate a question
- Can usually be distinguished from the definite article because it is vowelized with a chataf patach
הֲבֵן יַקִּיר לִי? ha
ven yakir li? - (Is he my most precious son?)
א (Alef) conjugated with verb
- I will
- When prefixed to a verb stem, indicates first person, singular, future tense. I will.
- אֹמַר omar - (I will say)
י (Yud) conjugated with verb
- He will or They will.
- When prefixed to a verb stem, indicates third person, future tense. (Number and gender depend on suffixes.)
- יֺאמַר yomar - (he will say)
- יֺאמְרוּ yomru - (they will say)
נ (Nun) conjugated with verb
- We will
- When prefixed to a verb stem, indicates first person, plural, future tense.
נֺאמַר nomar - (we will say)
ת (Tav) Conjugated with verb
When prefixed to a verb stem, indicates one of the following:third person, singular, feminine, future tense. She will second person, future tense. (Number and gender depend on suffixes.) You will In biblical Hebrew, third person, plural, feminine, future tense. They(f.) will
- תֹּאמַר tomar - (she will say)
- תֹּאמַר tomar - (you will say)
- תֹּאמַרְנָה שָׂרוֹת tomarna sarot - (the women of the nobility will say)
that, which, who, whom
- שֶׁקָּרָה shekara (which happened)
- שֶׁעָשׂוּ sheasu' - (who performed)
changes past tense to future tense and vice versa
Pronounced "va" when changing future tense to past tense. Usually pronounced "v'" or "u" when changing past tense to future tense.
- וַיֹּאמֶר vayomer' - (he said) (compare yomar-he will say)
- וְאָהַבְתָּ veahavta - (you shall love)(compare ahavta - you loved)