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consists of a nucleus positively charged protons and neutrally charged neutrons. negatively charged electrons are arranged outside of the nucleus
groups of two or more atoms held together by chemical bonds
- ability of an atom to attract electrons
- 3 kinds of bonds: ionic, covalent, hydrogen
- bonds formed between two atoms when one or more electrons are transferred from one atom to the other. occur when electronegativity is very different and one atom has a much stronger pull.
- atom that gains electrons has a negative charge
- atom that loses electrons has a positive charge
- ex. Na+ Cl- = NaCl
- form when electrons between atoms are shared. occurs when electronegativities are similar.
- -nonpolar covalent bond
- -polar covalent bond
nonpolar covalent bons
- bonds form when electrons are share equally. when the 2 atoms sharing electrons are identical
- ex. O2
bonds are formed when electrons are shared unequally. different electronegativities and an unequal distribution of the electrons results
weak bonds between molecules. form when a positively charged hydrogen atom in one covalently bonded molecule is attracted to a negatively charged area of another covalent bond