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What are the 8 Millennium development goals?
- (Global strategy to reduce health inequalities)
- 1. eradicate extreme poverty and hunger
- 2. achieve universal primary education
- 3. promote gender equality and empower women
- 4. reduce child mortality
- 5. improve maternal health
- 6. combat HIV/AIDS, malaria and other diseases
- 7. ensure environmental sustainability
- 8. global partnership for development
How does animal health fit into eliminating extreme poverty and hunger?
- Livestock and fish = livelihoods (food source, living banks)
- Increased production (more food, more affordable, more sustainable)
Give examples of financial capital
- might be cash - income from animal use
- might be animals
- -living banks
- -poultry as petty cash
- -pigs and goats as household expenses
- -cattle as the savings account
- -longevity and productivity
- -domestic and wild
Give examples of physical capital
- goods and services (infrastructure)
How does animal health fit into achieving universal primary education?
- Schools cost money to attend
- -living banks help fund schooling
- -disposable income allows kids to go to school and not work
- School performance is affected by nutritional status
How does animal health fit into promoting gender equity and empower women?
- Equity does not equal equality
- -it is about giving boys, girls, women, men equal opportunities to use their personal capabilities to realize full human rights
- -it recognizes differences and accommodate them in prevention of the continuation of inequitable staus quo
- Women often head households and in many countries are responsible for livestock care: -can access the 'resources' from the animals: food and income
- ie Sri Lanka: low cost fish farming to help females who where widowed
How does animal health fit into reducing child mortality?
- secure food supplies to meet nutritional needs
- safe food and animal interactions to reduce zoonoses
- another role for the living bank - pays for unexpected health costs
How does animal health fit into improving maternal health
- -healthier mother = healthier baby so this is related to reducing childhood mortality
- -nursing children plus physical labour of tending to the family = large nutritional costs:
- - available and nutritious animal based foods
- -goat and cow milk availability supplements breast milk
- -animals can help in work (beasts of burden)
- -animals provide income for health care
How can animal health help combat HIV, malaria and other diseases?
- Zoonoses are a determinant of poverty (childhood diarrhea is a major killer still)
- non-zoonotic animal disease reduce production and access to all the other animal associated benefits
- HIV/AIDS has reduced available farm labour: = reduced production (and animal welfare) - so to help the animals need to keep healthy and productive to reduce workload on compromised patient farmers
- combined human and animal health services:
- -vaccine delivery, education and awareness (ie if trust vets = greater awareness to vaccinate kids)
How does animal health help ensure environmental sustainability
- Animals do degrade the environment
- -physical damage to pastures from horse hooves, feces in water, trading crops for ppl for crops for animals, introducing and moving diseases
- Can also cause benefits
- -soil fertility, control of weeds, distribution of seeds, reduced pressure on wildlife as food sources, source of renewable energy (manure and work)
- IE ornamental fish farms- reduce the capture of wild fish for pet trade however neg impacts from inappropriate drug and chem use
How can we develop partnerships through animal health?
- Animals are determinants of health
- - the population health approach is based on partnerships
- -seeing animals as a public good rather than just private property shifts the vet perspective to more collaboration
- Poverty reduction and decreasing health inequities require multi-approaches and players (ie vets, MD, social workers, sociologists, COMMUNITY) and others
How are animals related to psycho-social determinants?
- being a functional part of our "community" is important to health - ie BSE ppl had to leave farming
- Connectios to animals and nature are good for mental health ie human-animal bond
Describe the FMD outbreak in the UK 2001 (psychosocial)
- BOTH healthy and infected animals were slaughtered
- between 4 and 10 million cattle, sheep, pigs, goats, and deer were culled
- most farms affected: the outbreak cost farming at least 4 billion pounds
- Higher rates of psychological morbidity in affected are compared with before the outbreak
- the level of psychological morbidity correlated with the degree of culling and restrictions
tourism was also affected
What is social capital?
- Social capital: refers to both formal and informal reciprocal links among people in all sorts of family, friendships, business and community networks
- ie in Australia pet ownership was found to be positively assoc with some forms of social contact and interaction, and with perceptions of neighbourbood friendliness
- per owners scored higher on social capital and civic engagement scales
How does animal health contribute to environmental services? (good and bad)
- -"country food and bush meat"
- -worth millions
- -food security issues for many people
- bats, birds, bees
- essential to feed the world
- -what is the value of biodiversity?
How do animals contribute to human health
- Animals are food
- Animals are sources of income
- Animals are sources of fuel and power
- Animals provide social capital
- Animals provide ecological services
- Animals promote mental health and fitness
What are the 2 different poles (viewpoints) of One health schools?
- ZOONOTIC HAZARDS ARE BEST PREVENTED AT SOURCES -"75%" Of emerging infectious diseases have been zoonotic
- -endemic zoonoses are determinants of poverty and poor health globally
- -primary prevention should target hazard reduction and exposures at their origin ie farm to fork food safety.
- FOSTERING POSITIVE ENVIRONMENTAL DETERMINANTS OF HEALTH
- -animals are critical for human health: food security, wealth, social capital, power (work and fuel)
- -sustained human well-being is absolutely dependent on functioning ecosystems: -biodiversity and landscapes provide ecological services (ie decline in bees and the loss of pollination services)
What are the ultimate One Health Goals?
- maximize the social benefits of animals and the environment
- -sustained food production, rural economy and poverty reduction, maintain trade and tourism
- -maintain the enviro services like water security and biodiversity
- Minimize the negative impacts from human-animal-environment interactions-emerging zoonotic infections
- -impacts of endemic zoonotic infections (including food safety)
- -detect and mitigate the effects of poullution
- -protect biodiversity and welfare while farming or extracting resources
How can you determine health problems and solutions?