A,H,S Quiz 3

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A,H,S Quiz 3
2013-10-07 20:46:11
Animals health society

A, H, S Quiz 3
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  1. What are the 8 Millennium development goals?
    • (Global strategy to reduce health inequalities)
    • 1. eradicate extreme poverty and hunger
    • 2. achieve universal primary education
    • 3. promote gender equality and empower women
    • 4. reduce child mortality
    • 5. improve maternal health
    • 6. combat HIV/AIDS, malaria and other diseases
    • 7. ensure environmental sustainability
    • 8. global partnership for development
  2. How does animal health fit into eliminating extreme poverty and hunger?
    • Livestock and fish = livelihoods (food source, living banks)
    • Increased production (more food, more affordable, more sustainable)
  3. Give examples of financial capital
    • might be cash - income from animal use
    • might be animals
    •  -living banks
    •   -poultry as petty cash
    •   -pigs and goats as household expenses
    •   -cattle as the savings account
    •  -longevity and productivity
    •  -domestic and wild
  4. Give examples of physical capital
    • transport
    • tools
    • shelter
    • energy
    • water
    • fertilizer
    • goods and services (infrastructure)
  5. How does animal health fit into achieving universal primary education?
    • Schools cost money to attend
    • -living banks help fund schooling
    • -disposable income allows kids to go to school and not work
    • School performance is affected by nutritional status
  6. How does animal health fit into promoting gender equity and empower women?
    • Equity does not equal equality
    •  -it is about giving boys, girls, women, men equal opportunities to use their personal capabilities to realize full human rights
    •  -it recognizes differences and accommodate them in prevention of the continuation of inequitable staus quo
    • Women often head households and in many countries are responsible for livestock care: -can access the 'resources' from the animals: food and income
    • ie Sri Lanka: low cost fish farming to help females who where widowed
  7. How does animal health fit into reducing child mortality?
    • secure food supplies to meet nutritional needs
    • safe food and animal interactions to reduce zoonoses
    • another role for the living bank - pays for unexpected health costs
  8. How does animal health fit into improving maternal health
    • -healthier mother = healthier baby so this is related to reducing childhood mortality
    • -nursing children plus physical labour of tending to the family = large nutritional costs:
    •  - available and nutritious animal based foods
    •   -goat and cow milk availability supplements breast milk
    •   -animals can help in work (beasts of burden)
    •   -animals provide income for health care
  9. How can animal health help combat HIV, malaria and other diseases?
    • Zoonoses are a determinant of poverty (childhood diarrhea is a major killer still)
    • non-zoonotic animal disease reduce production and access to all the other animal associated benefits
    • HIV/AIDS has reduced available farm labour: = reduced production (and animal welfare) - so to help the animals need to keep healthy and productive to reduce workload on compromised patient farmers
    • combined human and animal health services:
    •   -vaccine delivery, education and awareness (ie if trust vets = greater awareness to vaccinate kids)
  10. How does animal health help ensure environmental sustainability
    • Animals do degrade the environment
    • -physical damage to pastures from horse hooves, feces in water, trading crops for ppl for crops for animals, introducing and moving diseases
    • Can also cause benefits
    • -soil fertility, control of weeds, distribution of seeds, reduced pressure on wildlife as food sources, source of renewable energy (manure and work)
    • IE ornamental fish farms- reduce the capture of wild fish for pet trade however neg impacts from inappropriate drug and chem use
  11. How can we develop partnerships through animal health?
    • Animals are determinants of health
    • - the population health approach is based on partnerships
    • -seeing animals as a public good rather than just private property shifts the vet perspective to more collaboration
    • Poverty reduction and decreasing health inequities require multi-approaches and players (ie vets, MD, social workers, sociologists, COMMUNITY) and others
  12. How are animals related to psycho-social determinants?
    • being a functional part of our "community" is important to health - ie BSE ppl had to leave farming
    • Connectios to animals and nature are good for mental health ie human-animal bond
  13. Describe the FMD outbreak in the UK 2001 (psychosocial)
    • BOTH healthy and infected animals were slaughtered
    • between 4 and 10 million cattle, sheep, pigs, goats, and deer were culled
    • most farms affected: the outbreak cost farming at least 4 billion pounds
    • Higher rates of psychological morbidity in affected are compared with before the outbreak
    • the level of psychological morbidity correlated with the degree of culling and restrictions

    tourism was also affected
  14. What is social capital?
    • Social capital: refers to both formal and informal reciprocal links among people in all sorts of family, friendships, business and community networks
    • ie in Australia pet ownership was found to be positively assoc with some forms of social contact and interaction, and with perceptions of neighbourbood friendliness
    • per owners scored higher on social capital and civic engagement scales
  15. How does animal health contribute to environmental services? (good and bad)
    • -"country food and bush meat"
    •   -worth millions
    •   -food security issues for many people
    • -pollination
    •   bats, birds, bees
    •   essential to feed the world
    • -what is the value of biodiversity?
  16. How do animals contribute to human health
    • Animals are food
    • Animals are sources of income
    • Animals are sources of fuel and power
    • Animals provide social capital
    • Animals provide ecological services
    • Animals promote mental health and fitness
  17. ********************************
    What are the 2 different poles (viewpoints) of One health schools?
    • -"75%" Of emerging infectious diseases have been zoonotic
    • -endemic zoonoses are determinants of poverty and poor health globally
    • -primary prevention should target hazard reduction and exposures at their origin ie farm to fork food safety.
    • -animals are critical for human health: food security, wealth, social capital, power (work and fuel)
    • -sustained human well-being is absolutely dependent on functioning ecosystems:
    •         -biodiversity and landscapes provide ecological services (ie decline in bees and the loss of pollination services)
  18. What are the ultimate One Health Goals?
    • maximize the social benefits of animals and the environment
    • -sustained food production, rural economy and poverty reduction, maintain trade and tourism
    • -maintain the enviro services like water security and biodiversity
    • Minimize the negative impacts from human-animal-environment interactions
    • -emerging zoonotic infections
    • -impacts of endemic zoonotic infections (including food safety)
    • -detect and mitigate the effects of poullution
    • -protect biodiversity and welfare while farming or extracting resources
  19. How can you determine health problems and solutions?
    • ASK
    • SHOW ME
    • FIND