Topic 8 - biomechanics
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an object must change position in space and time and force must be applied
define linear motion
parts of the body describe a straight line
define curvilinear moation
parts of the body describe parallel curved lines
define angular motion
parts of the body move around an axis of rotation
define general motion
combination of two or more types of motion
define projectile motion
any object that moves through the air after being released as it follows a pre determined path by gravity and air resistance. the lighter the object the more it is affected.
what is the summation of force
involves the individual forces that produce successful movements being added to create a larger total force.
what is leverage and what are the 3 parts to it?
- 'simple machines' that help make work possible
- effort - needs to be applied to ensure movement, form the contracting muscles in the body
- load - resistance to effort attempt to overcome
- fulcrum - point in which effort and load rotate.
newtons first law of motion
inertia - a body at motion will remain at motion unless acted upon by an unbalanced force and a body at rest will remain at rest unless acted upon by an unbalanced force.
newtons second law of motion
- force = mass x acceleration
- the acceleration of a body is directly proportional to the net force acting upon it, inversely proportional to the mass of the body.
newtons third law of motion
each action has an equal and opposite reaction hence whenever one object exerts a force on the second object the second object exerts an equal and opposite reaction, (force) on the first object.
define centre of gravity
centre of gravity is a point through which gravity acts upon an object. for an object to be considered stable it must have its centre of gravity over its base of support.
an object is at rest or in a state of equilibrium, when forces acting upon the object are balanced
what is static equilibrium
body is stable or balanced as the body is stationary
what is dynamic equilibrium
moving object or body remains balanced
what is force reception
to absorb force we apple the impulse, momentum principle in reverse, increasing the time in which force is applied. improving accuracy and avoiding injury.
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