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What is change?
An alteration of an organisation's environment, structure, culture, technology or people.
- -A constant force
- -An organisational reality
- -An opportunity or threat
External forces for change
- Information knowledge
- Availability of Capital
- Societal Changes
- Labour markets and population demographics
- The economy
- Trade Unions
- Legal Requirements
- New Technology
Internal Transforming Systems
- Technological process
- Operational processes
- Human resources systems
- Power- political System
- Goal and planning processes
- Informational knowledge systems
- Financial Process
Internal Forces for Change
E.g leadership, strategy changes, culture shifts, restructures, etc.
Arise when change in one part of the organisational system creates the need for change in another part of the system
May be in response to one or more external forces.
A person or group who takes leadership responsibility for changing the existing pattern of behaviour of another person or social system.
- Embraces new ideas
Types of Change
makes radical changes in organisational directions
continuing adjustments to existing ways and practices.
– Bottom-up change
is initiated by empowered persons working at all organisational levels.
Strategic and comprehensive change that is initiated with the goals of comprehensive impact on the organisation and its performance capabilities
Driven by the organisation’s top leadership
Success depends on support of middle-level and lower-level workers.
- • Occurs as a result of speciﬁc eﬀorts of a change agent
- • Direct response to perception of a performance gap.
- • Occurs spontaneously or randomly and without beneﬁt of a change agent’s a1ention
- • Acting immediately is the appropriate response goal.
Phases of planned change
- 1. Unfreezing
- 2. Changing
- 3. Refreezing
- The phase of stabilising the change and creating the conditions for its long-term continuity.
- The phase in which something new takes place and change is actually implemented
- The phase in which a situation is prepared for change and felt needs for change are developed