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What is Science?
To know or to learn
Two methods of science?
- 1. Repeated, Verifiable Observations
- 2. Scientific Method
What is a Hypothesis?
- Possible Explanation
- (A good Hypothesis is testable)
What is a Theory?
An Accepted Explanation
The Scientific Method is Subjective or Objective?
What is the difference between Objective and Subjective
- Objective is by the data with no outside influence.
- Subjective is like a person's 'gut feeling'
All living things are made up of 1 or more of these.
All Cells have contained at one time:
- -Plasma membrane
What is a cell's metabolism?
- -Need food
- -Produce waste
- -Need O2
a bag of chemicals preforming precisely controlled chemical reactions
Two major groups of cells
Eukaryotes & Prokaryotes
- "large" (100-1,000x bigger)
- Multiple chromosomes in Pairs(Linear)
- Single Circular Chromosome (Circle)
A membrane bounded structure within a cell
What does something have to pass through to get into or out of the cell?
Concentrates chemicals needed to build DNA
concentrates chemicals need to make ATP (# varies cell to cell)
concentrates chemicals needed for Photosynthesis (# varies cell to cell)
Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum (SER)
- 1. Lipid Synthesis
- 2. Sex hormones
- 3. Detoxification
Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum
has Ribosomes on its surface, makes Protein.
protein fibers that line the inside of the cell
along with the cytoskeleton they create the package and delivery system
Cell membrane is referred to as
like bumps on a basketball
Hydrophillic (Water loving)
Hydrophobic (water hating)
relies on kinetic energy
3 types of diffusion
- goes from an area of high concentration to low concentration
- eventually reaching dynamic equilibrium
Greater chance of molecule getting into by being knocked into it
Transporter proteins, Carbohydrates allow certain compounds in
diffusion of water selectively permeable membrane
High concentration of water
Lower concentration of water
Concentration of water is the same
Smallest part of an element
- contains protons+ and neutronssurrounded by electrons-
the charge of an atom is called
- - can create 4 bonds
- - how many bonds and typed determines size and shape
Classes of Macromolecules
Proteins, Carbohydrates, Lipids, Nucleic acids
structural, most enzymes are proteins
structural, medium energy storage, molecule recognition
structural, long term energy storage, lubricates skin
macromolecules, nucleic acids
Genetic material; DNA, RNA
Made up of a solvent that things are dissolved in, after it is dissolved it is a solute
attraction of like molecules
Attracted to unlike molecules
Water molecule breaking up, can be a base or an acid at the same time
- Division of Genetic material
- Division of the rest of the cell
Chromosomes line up in the middle of the cell
chromosomes are being pulled away from eachother
identical to original cell, but smaller in size
- Sex cells
Fermentation & Aerobic Respiration= make ATP
Changes glucose (1 cell) into Pyruvate (2 cells)
- *2 ATP
- - Lactic Acid
- *Takes place in Mitocondria
Aerobic Respiration Creates
- -2 ATP
- -CO2-Carbon Skeletons
Terminal Electron Acceptor
Adenosine Tri Phosphate
Adenosine Di Phosphate
Electron Transport Chain
Appox. 36 ATPs
Change over time
change in gene frequency over time
Fact & Theory of Evolution by Natural Selction
- *Human Induced Selection
- - Breeding Livestock
Theory of Evolution by Natural Selection
- 1. Lots of babies
- 2. Genetic differences
- 3. Environmental Pressures
- 4. Different rates of survival
- 5. Geologic time & New Species
Biological Species Concept
Two populations that come together and do not breed, are probably two different species.
Stephen Jay Gould
Things evolve quickly then remain unchanged for long periods of time
- *Comparative anatomy
- *Fossil Record
- *DNA analysis
Orgin of life
cannot be proven
- Catalyze Reactions
- -Hold & Position Reactions
Enzyme, Active site
a place for the enzyme to go into another enzyme
- *Active Site
- * Proteins
- - denature
body will shut down enzymes for a short period of time. can lead to denature
Small molecules put together to make large ones
Large molecules broken up into smaller ones
Conversion of Light energy into chemical energy
Sunlight+ CO2+ H2O+ Chloraphyll -------> C6H12O6 + O2^
Quality and Quantity of light for Photosynthesis
manages light to convert to Chemical energy (Active)
transfers additional energy to A. (Booster)
Light Dependent reaction
- - O2^
- - NADPH, the H goes to Light Independent and NADP is recycled
Light Independent reaction
- Light Dependent.
- The blue green is light independent.
- Both are at different PH levels, If mixed enzymes would denature.
Most significant reaction of earth?
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