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2010-06-17 13:54:23
Bio Biology Summer CSU Fresno

Biology 10 questions for summer
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  1. What is Science?
    To know or to learn
  2. Two methods of science?
    • 1. Repeated, Verifiable Observations
    • 2. Scientific Method
  3. What is a Hypothesis?
    • Possible Explanation
    • (A good Hypothesis is testable)
  4. What is a Theory?
    An Accepted Explanation
  5. The Scientific Method is Subjective or Objective?
  6. What is the difference between Objective and Subjective
    • Objective is by the data with no outside influence.
    • Subjective is like a person's 'gut feeling'
  7. All living things are made up of 1 or more of these.
  8. All Cells have contained at one time:
    • -Plasma membrane
    • -DNA
    • -Metabolism
    • -Small
  9. What is a cell's metabolism?
    • -Need food
    • -Produce waste
    • -Need O2
  10. Cell
    a bag of chemicals preforming precisely controlled chemical reactions
  11. Two major groups of cells
    Eukaryotes & Prokaryotes
  12. Eukaryotes characteristics
    • "large" (100-1,000x bigger)
    • Multiple chromosomes in Pairs(Linear)
    • Organelles
  13. Prokaryotes Characteristics
    • "Small"
    • Single Circular Chromosome (Circle)
  14. Organelles
    A membrane bounded structure within a cell
  15. All Cells are:
  16. What does something have to pass through to get into or out of the cell?
    Plasma Membrane
  17. Nucleus
    Concentrates chemicals needed to build DNA
  18. Mitochondria
    concentrates chemicals need to make ATP (# varies cell to cell)
  19. Chloroplast
    concentrates chemicals needed for Photosynthesis (# varies cell to cell)
  20. Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum (SER)
    • 1. Lipid Synthesis
    • 2. Sex hormones
    • 3. Detoxification
  21. Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum
    has Ribosomes on its surface, makes Protein.
  22. Cytoskeleton
    protein fibers that line the inside of the cell
  23. Golgi
    along with the cytoskeleton they create the package and delivery system
  24. Plasma membrane
    is flexible
  25. Cell membrane is referred to as
    Phospholipid Bilayer
  26. Phospholipid Bilayer
    like bumps on a basketball
  27. Phosphate is
    Hydrophillic (Water loving)
  28. Hydrophillic
    Water loving
  29. Lipids are
    Hydrophobic (water hating)
  30. Hydrophobic
    Water hating
  31. Diffusion
    relies on kinetic energy
  32. 3 types of diffusion
    • -Simple
    • -facilitated
    • -osmosis
  33. All diffusion
    • goes from an area of high concentration to low concentration
    • eventually reaching dynamic equilibrium
  34. Simple diffusion
    Greater chance of molecule getting into by being knocked into it
  35. Facilitated Diffusion
    Transporter proteins, Carbohydrates allow certain compounds in
  36. Osmosis
    diffusion of water selectively permeable membrane
  37. Hypotonic
    High concentration of water
  38. Hypertonic
    Lower concentration of water
  39. isotonic
    Concentration of water is the same
  40. Atom
    Smallest part of an element
  41. Nucleus
    • contains protons+ and neutrons
    • surrounded by electrons-
  42. the charge of an atom is called
  43. Carbon
    • - can create 4 bonds
    • - how many bonds and typed determines size and shape
  44. Classes of Macromolecules
    Proteins, Carbohydrates, Lipids, Nucleic acids
  45. macromolecules, proteins
    structural, most enzymes are proteins
  46. macromolecules, carbohydrates
    structural, medium energy storage, molecule recognition
  47. Macromolecules, Lipids
    structural, long term energy storage, lubricates skin
  48. macromolecules, nucleic acids
    Genetic material; DNA, RNA
  49. Solution
    Made up of a solvent that things are dissolved in, after it is dissolved it is a solute
  50. Cohesive
    attraction of like molecules
  51. Adhesive
    Attracted to unlike molecules
  52. Dissociates
    Water molecule breaking up, can be a base or an acid at the same time
  53. Mitosis
    • Division of Genetic material
  54. Cytokinesis
    • Division of the rest of the cell
  55. Metaphase
    Chromosomes line up in the middle of the cell
  56. Anaphase
    chromosomes are being pulled away from eachother
  57. Daughter cell
    identical to original cell, but smaller in size
  58. Meiosis
    • Sex cells
  59. Cellular Respiration
    Fermentation & Aerobic Respiration= make ATP
  60. Glycolysis
    Changes glucose (1 cell) into Pyruvate (2 cells)
  61. Fermentation
    • *2 ATP
    • *By-products
    • -Ethanol
    • - Lactic Acid
  62. Aerobic Respiration
    • *Takes place in Mitocondria
  63. Aerobic Respiration Creates
    • -NADH
    • -2 ATP
    • -CO2
    • -Carbon Skeletons
  64. Terminal Electron Acceptor
  65. ATP
    Adenosine Tri Phosphate
  66. ADP
    Adenosine Di Phosphate
  67. Electron Transport Chain
    Appox. 36 ATPs
  68. Evolution
    Change over time
  69. Biological Evolution
    change in gene frequency over time
  70. Evolution types
    Fact & Theory of Evolution by Natural Selction
  71. Evolution, Fact
    • *Demonstrate
    • *Human Induced Selection
    • - Breeding Livestock
  72. Theory of Evolution by Natural Selection
    • 1. Lots of babies
    • 2. Genetic differences
    • 3. Environmental Pressures
    • 4. Different rates of survival
    • 5. Geologic time & New Species
  73. Biological Species Concept
    Two populations that come together and do not breed, are probably two different species.
  74. Stephen Jay Gould
    Punctuated Equilibrium
  75. Punctuated Equilibrium
    Things evolve quickly then remain unchanged for long periods of time
  76. Darwin
    • *Comparative anatomy
    • *Fossil Record
    • *DNA analysis
  77. Orgin of life
    cannot be proven
  78. Enzymes
    • Catalyze Reactions
    • -Hold & Position Reactions
    • -"Tweak"
  79. Enzyme, Active site
    a place for the enzyme to go into another enzyme
  80. Enzymes characteristics
    • *Active Site
    • * Proteins
    • - denature
  81. Enzyme Inhibition
    body will shut down enzymes for a short period of time. can lead to denature
  82. Anabolic
    Small molecules put together to make large ones
  83. Catablolic
    Large molecules broken up into smaller ones
  84. Photosyntesis
    Conversion of Light energy into chemical energy

    Sunlight+ CO2+ H2O+ Chloraphyll -------> C6H12O6 + O2^
  85. Quality and Quantity of light for Photosynthesis
  86. Chloraphyll A
    manages light to convert to Chemical energy (Active)
  87. Chloraphyll B
    transfers additional energy to A. (Booster)
  88. Light Dependent reaction
    • Produces:
    • - O2^
    • - NADPH, the H goes to Light Independent and NADP is recycled
  89. Light Independent reaction
  90. Thylakoid Complex

    • Light Dependent.
    • The blue green is light independent.
    • Both are at different PH levels, If mixed enzymes would denature.
  91. Most significant reaction of earth?