ARHS Exam 2

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ARHS Exam 2
2013-10-07 11:23:44

Key Terms
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  1. The Protestant Reformation
    a religious movement of the 16th century that began as an attempt to reform the Roman Catholic Church and resulted in the creation of Protestant churches
  2. Pilgrimage Church
    A pilgrimage Church is usually a wayside chapel used on pilgrimages. A pilgrimage Church may also be the destination of a pilgrimage, where devotion to a saint or to Mother Mary is conducted regularly. A pilgrimage Church may also be associated with a site sacred to Christianity, such as a shrine, a tomb, a memorial to a Saint
  3. Relics
    Relics include the physical remains of a saint (or of a person who is considered holy but not yet officially canonized) as well as other objects which have been "sanctified" by being touched to his body.
  4. Counter- Reformation
    the reaction of the Roman Catholic Church to the Reformation reaffirming the veneration of saints and the authority of the Pope (to which Protestants objected); many leaders were Jesuits
  5. Symbols of the Barberini
    the heraldic symbol of the bees which is of the Barberini family. This is in great part due to the fact that the renaissance pope, Urban VIII, was a member of the Barberini family.
  6. Discalced Carmelites
    The Discalced Carmelites are a Roman Catholic religious community of priests, brothers and laity serving the Church through lives of prayer and ministry, in a fraternal setting. With roots that go back to twelfth-century hermits on Mount Carmel in the Holy Land. The Discalced Carmelites were established by St. Teresa of Avila and St. John of the Cross in 1568 to renew the Order's commitment to contemplation, simplicity and community.
  7. Quadri riportati
    Quadro riportato is a term applied to a ceiling picture that is intended to look as if it is a framed easel picture placed overhead; there is no illusionistic foreshortening, figures appearing as if they were to be viewed at normal eye level. Quadro riportati were combined with illusionistic elements, as in Annibale Carracci's Farnese Ceiling (1597-1600) in Rome and Michael Angelo's ceiling painting.
  8. Tenebrism
    a style of painting especially associated with the Italian painter Caravaggio and his followers in which most of the figures are engulfed in shadow but some are dramatically illuminated by a beam of light usually from an identifiable source
  9. Caravaggist
    The Caravaggisti were stylistic followers of the 16th century Italian Baroque painter Caravaggio. His influence on the new Baroque style that eventually emerged from Mannerism was profound.
  10. Bel Composto
    Bel Composto was an artistic theory developed by Bernini during the Baroque. The theory involved unifying the arts of painting, sculpting, and architecture.
  11. Patron
    a person who gives financial or other support to a person, organization, cause, work of art or activity.
  12. Chiaroscuro
    in art is the use of strong contrasts between light and dark, usually bold contrasts affecting a whole composition. Chiaroscuro is also a technical term used by artists and art historians for using contrasts of light to achieve a sense of volume in modelling three-dimensional objects such as the human body.
  13. still-life
    a painting or drawing of an arrangement of objects, typically including fruit and flowers and objects contrasting with these in texture, such as bowls and glassware.
  14. Vanitas Still-life
    Vanitas art is a fascinating genre which features objects rich in morbid symbolism such as skulls, rotting food, and fading flowers in order to produce in the viewer's mind an acute awareness of the brevity of life and the inevitability of death. The origins of the term date back to the latin biblical aphorism: vanitas vanitatum omnia vanitas (Ecclesiates 1:2) [Vanity of vanities; all is vanity.]
  15. Genre painting
    a style of painting depicting scenes from ordinary life, esp. domestic situations. Genre painting is associated particularly with 17th-century Dutch and Flemish artists.
  16. The Sun King
    Louis XIV, known as Louis the Great or the Sun King, was a monarch of the House of Bourbon who ruled as King of France and Navarre from 1643 until his death.
  17. The Palace of Versailles
    Versailles: a palace built in the 17th century for Louis XIV southwest of Paris near the city of Versailles
  18. Louis Le Vau and Charles Hardouin-Mansart
    Builders of the Palace of Versalles
  19. Royal Academy of Painting and Sculpture
    founded in 1648, modelled on Italian examples, such as the Accademia di San Luca in Rome.he purpose of this academy was to professionalize the artists working for the French court and give them a stamp of approval that artists of the St. Luke's guild did not have.
  20. The Salon
    a conversational gathering of intellectuals, artists and politicians.
  21. Hierarchy of Genres
    Any formalization which ranks different genres in an art form in terms of their prestige and cultural value.
  22. Rococo
    (of furniture or architecture) of or characterized by an elaborately ornamental late baroque style of decoration prevalent in 18th-century Continental Europe, with asymmetrical patterns involving motifs and scrollwork.extravagantly or excessively ornate, esp. (of music or literature) highly ornamented and florid.
  23. Fete Galante
    an outdoor entertainment or rural festival, esp. as depicted in 18th-century French painting
  24. The Grand Tour
    a cultural tour of Europe formerly undertaken, esp. in the 18th century, by a young man of the upper classes as a part of his education.
  25. Vedute
    veduta (Italian for "view"; plural vedute) is a highly detailed, usually large-scale painting of a cityscape or some other vista.
  26. The Enlightenment
    The Age of Enlightenment was a cultural movement of intellectuals beginning in the late 17th and 18th century Europe emphasizing reason and individualism rather than tradition.
  27. French Revolution
    the revolution in France against the Bourbons; 1789-1799
  28. Napoleon
    Napoleon Bonaparte was a French military and political leader who rose to prominence during the latter stages of the French Revolution and its associated wars in Europe
  29. Romanticism
    a movement in the arts and literature that originated in the late 18th century, emphasizing inspiration, subjectivity, and the primacy of the individual.
  30. Odalisque
    a female slave or concubine in a harem, esp. one in the seraglio of the sultan of Turkey.
  31. Lithography
    the process of printing from a flat surface treated so as to repel the ink except where it is required for printing.
  32. The Sublime
    he quality of greatness, whether physical, moral, intellectual, metaphysical, aesthetic, spiritual or artistic.