Med Terms Chapter Five

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Med Terms Chapter Five
2013-10-08 17:57:24
Med Terms

Ch 5
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  1. ACS : acute coronary syndrome
    • signs and symptoms indication an active process of atherosclerotic plaque buildup or formation of a thrombus, a spams within a coronary artery, causing a reduction of loss of blood flow to myocardial tissue
    • includes unstable angina and other pathological events leading to myocardial infarction 
    • early diagnosis and rapid treatment are critical to avoid or minimize damage to the heart muscle
  2. aneurysm
    • a widening
    • BULGING of the wall of the hear, aorta, or artery caused by a congenital  defect or acquired weakness
  3. angina pectoris
    • CHEST PAIN caused by temporary lose of Oxygenated blood to hear muscle
    • often caused by NARROWING of the coronary arteries
  4. Angiotensin-Converting Enzymes (ACE ) inhibitor
    • drug that suppresses the conversion of angiotension in the blood by angiotension-converting enzyme
    • used to treat hypertension
  5. antianginal
    drug the DILATES CORONARY ARTERIES, restoring oxygen to tissues to relieve pain of angina pectoris
  6. AntiArryhthmic
    drug that COUNTERACTS cardiac arrhymthmia
  7. antiocoagulant
    • drug that PREVENTS CLOTTING of the blood
    • commonly used in treatment of thrombophlebitis and myocardial infarction
  8. antihypertensive
    drug that LOWERS BP
  9. aorta
    large artery that is the main trunk of the arterial system branching from the left ventricle
  10. arrhythmia
    any kind of IRREGULARITY or LOSS of RHYTHM of the heartbeat
  11. arteries
    vessels that carry blood from the heart to the arterioles
  12. ARTERIOsclerosis
  13. atrium
    upper right or left chamber of the hear
  14. atheromatus plaque
    SWOLLEN AREA within the lining of an artery caused by the FAT BUILDUP
  15. ATHEROsclerosis
    a form of arteriosclerosis, BUILDUP of FATTY substances that HARDENS within arterial walls
  16. atrial septum defect
    an opening in the septum separating the atria
  17. Atriolventricular (AV) node
    neurological tissue in the center of the heart that receives and amplifies the  conduction of impulses from the SA node to the bundle of his
  18. auscultation
    • physical exam method of listening to sounds of the body with a stethoscope 
    • sounds from chest for heart and lungsounds
  19. bacterial endocarditis
    bacterial inflammation that affects the endocardium or the heart valves
  20. Beta- Adrenergic Blocking Agents
    • agents that INHIBIT responses to the sympathetic adrenergic nerve activity, causing a slowing of electrical conduction and heart rate, lowering pressure with walls of vessels
    • used to treat ANGINA PECTORIS and HYPERTENSION
  21. Beta-Blockers
    same as beta-adrenergic blocking agents
  22. bicuspid valve
    heart valve btwn left atrium and left ventricle
  23. bradycardia
    slow hear rate <60 bpm
  24. bundle of His
    neurological fibers extending from the AV node to the right and left bundle branches that first the impulses from the AV nosed to the purkinje fibers
  25. calcium-channel blockers
    • agents that INHIBIT ENTRY of Ca2+ ions into the heart muscle cells, causing a slowing of the heart rate, lessening of the demand for Oand nutrients, and a RELAXING of SM cells of blood vessels to cause DILATION
  26. capillaries
    tiny vessels that join arterioles and venules
  27. cardiac output
    measurement of amount of blood ejected per minute from either ventricle of the heart
  28. cardiomyopathy
    general term for disease of the heart muscle
  29. cardioversion
    restoration of fast or irregular heart rate to normal rhythm, either by pharmaceutical means or by delivery of electrical energy
  30. claudication
    • to LIMP
    • pain in a limb (i.e. calf) while walking that subsides after rest
    • caused by inadequate blood supply
  31. congenital anomaly of the heart
    malformations of the heart that are present at birth
  32. congestive heart failure  (CSF)
    • failure of the LV to pump an adequate amount of blood to meet the demands of the body, resulting in a "bottleneck" of congestion in the lungs that may extend to the veins, causing edema in lower portions of the body
    • LV heart failure
  33. constriction
    • compression of a part that causes narrowing 
    • stenosis
  34. Cor Pulmonale
    • ENLARGEMENT of the RV, resulting from chronic disease within the lungs, that causes congestion within the pulmonary circulation and resistance of blood flow to the lungs 
    • RV failute
  35. Coronary Artery Bypass Graft (CABG)
    grafting a portion of blood vessel retrieved from another part of the body to bypass an occluded coronary artery, restoring circulation to myocardial tissue
  36. Coronary Artery Disease (CAD)
    • condition affecting arteries of the heart that reduces the flow of blood and delivery of oxygen and nutrients to the myocardium
    • most often caused by atherosclerosis
  37. deep vein thrombosis (DVT)
    formation of a clot in a deep vein of the body, occurring  most often in the femoral and iliac veins
  38. defibrillation
    • termination of ventricular fibrillation by delivering and electrical stimulus to the heart
    • commonly done by applying electrodes of a defibrillator externally to chest wall, but can also be done internally, such as by open heart surgery or via implanted devices
  39. defibrillator
    device that delivers the electrical stimulus in defibrillation
  40. diaphoresis
    • profuse sweating
    • perspiration
  41. diastole
    • to expand
    • period during the cardia cycle when blood enters the relaxed ventricles from the atria
  42. diuretic
    • drug that INCREASE secretion of URINE
    • commonly prescribed in treating HYPERTENSION
  43. echocardiography
    recording the sound waves through the heart to evaluate structure and motion
  44. ejection fraction
    measurement of the volume % of LV contents ejected with each contraction
  45. Electrocradiogram (EKG/ECG)
    electrical picture of the heart represented by positive and negative deflections on a graph
  46. embolus
    CLOT (air, fat, foreign object) carried in bloodstream obstructing blood flow
  47. endocardium
    membrane lining the cavities of the heart
  48. epicardium
    membrane forming the outer layer of the heart
  49. essential hypertension
    • high BP attributed to no single cause
    • risks include smoking, obesity, increased salt intake, hypercholesterolemia, and hereditary factors
  50. fibrillation
    chaotic, irregular contractions of the hear, as in atrial or ventricular fibrillation
  51. heart murmur
    ABNORMAL sound from heart produced by defects in chamber or valves
  52. heart valves
    structures within the heart that open and close with the heartbeat to regulated the one-way flow of blood
  53. holter ambulatory monitor
    • portable electrocardiograph worn by the pt that monitors electrical activity of the heart over 24 hrs
    • useful in detecting periodic abnormalities
  54. hypertension (HTN)
    persistently HIGH blood pressure
  55. HTN
  56. CAD
    coronary artery disease
  57. DVT
    deep vein thrombosis
  58. CHF
    congestive heart failure
  59. ACS
    acute coronary syndrome
  60. hypolipidemic
    drug that reduces serum fat and cholesterol
  61. implantable caridoverter defibrillator (ICD)
    • implanted, battery operated devices with rate sensing leads 
    • monitors cardia impulses and initiates an electrical stimulus as needed to stop ventricular fibrillation or tachycardia
  62. CABG
    coronary artery bypass graft
  63. ICD
    implantable cardioverter defibrillator
  64. infarct
    • to STUFF
    • localized area of necrosis (tissue death) caused by ischemia resulting from occlusion of a blood vessel
  65. interatrial septum
    partition btwn the right and left atria
  66. intravascular stent placement
    • implantation of a device used to reinforce the wall of vessel and assure its patency (openess)
    • most often used to treat stenosis or dissection (spilt or tear in wall of vessel) or to reinforce opening of vessel after angioplasty
  67. ischemia
    • to hold back blood
    • decreased blood flow to tissue cause by constriction or occlusion of blood vessel
  68. left ventricular failure
    failure of the LV to pump an adequate amount of blood to meet the demands of the body resulting in a "bottleneck" of congestion in the lungs that may extend to the veins, causing edema in lower portions of the body  (CHF)
  69. mitral valve
    heart valve btwn the left atrium and then left venticle
  70. mitral valve prolapse (MVP)
    protrusion of one or both cusps of the mitral valve back into the left atrium during ventricular contraction resulting in incomplete closure and backflow of blood
  71. MVP
    mitral valve prolapse
  72. myocardial infarction
    • heart attack
    • death of myocardial tissue caused by ischemia as a result of an occlusion of coronary artery
    • usually caused by atherosclerosis
    • symptoms include chest pain, pain in upper body (shoulder, neck, jaw), shortness of breath,  diaphoresis, and nausea
  73. myocarditis
    • inflammation of myocardium
    • most often caused by viral or bacterial infection
  74. myocardium
    heart muscle
  75. normal sinus rhythm
    • regular rhythm of the heart cycle stimulated by the SA node 
    • average rate: 60-100 bpm
  76. normotension
    NORMAL blood pressure
  77. occlusion
    • an obstruction of closing off
  78. pacemaker
    • device used to treat slow heart rates by electrically stimulating heart to contract 
    • often implanted with lead wires and battery circuitry under skin, but can also be placed on a temporary basis externally with lead wires inserted into heart via vein
  79. palpitation
    subjective experience of pounding, skipping, or racing heartbeats
  80. patent ductus arteriosus (PDA)
    ABNORMAL opening btwn the pulmonary artery and aorta caused by failure of the fetal ductus arteriosus
  81. PDA
    patent ductus arteriosus
  82. percutaneous transluminal coronary artery (PTCA)
    • method for treating narrowing of coronary artery by inserting specialized catheter with a balloon attachment, then inflating the balloon to dilate and open the narrowed portion of the vessel to restore blood flow to myocardium
    • most often includes placement of a stent
  83. PTCA
    percutaneous transluminal coronary artery
  84. angioplasty
    surgical repair of blood vessels
  85. pericarditis
    inflammation of the pericardium 
  86. pericardium
    protective sac enclosing the heart composed of two layers with fluid in btwn
  87. phlebitis
    inflammation of a vein
  88. positron-emission technology (PET) scan of the heart
    • use of specialized nuclear isotopes and computer tomographic techniques to produce perfusion (blood flow) images and to study the cellular metabolism of the heart
    • can be performed at rest or with stress
  89. premature ventricular contraction (PVC)
    ventricular contraction preceding the normal impulse initiated by SA node
  90. PVC
    premature ventricular contraction
  91. primary hypertension
    • high bp attributed to no single cause
    • risks include smoking, obesity, increased salt intake, hypercholesterolemia, and hereditary factors (essential hypertension)
  92. pulmonary circulation
    circulation of blood from the pulmonary artery through the vessels in the lungs and back to the heart via the pulmonary vein, providing for the exchange of gases
  93. pulmonary semilunar valve
    heart valve opening from the right ventricle to the pulmonary artery
  94. purkinje fibers
    fibers in the ventricles that transmit impulses to the right and left ventricle, causing them to contract
  95. rheumatic heart disease
    damage to heart muscle and heart valves by rheumatic fever (a streptococcal infection)
  96. right ventricular failure
    ENLARGEMENT of the RV, resulting from chronic disease within the lungs, that causes congestion within the pulmonary circulation and resistance of blood flow to the lungs ( Cor Pulmonale)
  97. secondary hypertension
    high BP causes by effects of another disease (kidney disease)
  98. sinoatrial (SA) node
    • the pacemaker
    • high specialized, neurological tissue impeded in the wall of the right atrium
    • responsible for initiating electrical conduction of the heartbeat, causing the atria to contract and firing conduction of impulses to the AV node
  99. stenosis
    CONDITION of NARROWING of a part
  100. stress echocardiogram
    echocardiogram of heart recorded during induction of controlled physical exercise,or pharmaceutical   agent that produces effect of exercise stress in pts who are immobile, to detect ischemia or infarction
  101. sudden cardiac arrest (SCA)
    • abrupt cessation of any cardiac output, most commonly as a result of ventricular fibrillation
    • causes sudden death unless defibrillation is initiated immediately
  102. SCA
    sudden cardiac arrest
  103. systemic circulation
    circulation of blood throughout the body via arteries, arterioles, capillaries, venules, and veins to deliver oxygen and nutrients to body tissues
  104. systole
    • to CONTRACT
    • a period during the cardia cycle when the heart is in contraction and blood is ejected through the aorta and the pulmonary artery
  105. tachycardia
    fast heart rate > 100bpm
  106. thrombolytic agents
    • drugs used to DISSOLVE THROMBI
    • used in acute management of myocardial infarction and ischemic stroke
    • commonly called "CLOT BUSTERS"
  107. thrombophlebitis
    inflammation the vein associated with a clot formation
  108. Thrombus
    STATIONARY blood clot
  109. tricuspid valve
    valve btwn the right atrium and the right ventricle
  110. valve replacement
    surgery to replace diseased heart valve with artificial valvle
  111. valves of veins
    valves located at intervals within the lining of veins, especially in the legs, which constrict with muscle action to move the blood returning to the heart
  112. varicose veins
    • abnormally swollen, twisted veins with defective valves
    • most often seen in legs
  113. vasoconstrictor
    drug that causes NARROWING of blood vessels, thereby DECREASING blood flow
  114. vasodilator
    drug that causes DILATION of blood vessels, thereby INCREASING blood flow
  115. vegetation
    • to GROW
    • and ABNORMAL growth of TISSUE around the VALVE as a result of INFECTION
  116. veins
    vessels that carry blood to the heart from the venules
  117. ventricle
    lower right or left chamber of the heart from the venules
  118. ventricular septal deffect
    opening in the septum separating the ventricles
  119. venules
    small vessel that gather blood from the capillaries into the veins
  120. ACE
    angiotension-converting enzyme
  121. AV
  122. BP
    blood pressure
  123. ECG/EKG
  124. ECHO
  125. IV
  126. MI
    myocardial infarction
  127. PET
    positron-Emission Tomography
  128. tPA/TPA
    tissue plasminogen activator