Med terms Ch 6

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Med terms Ch 6
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2013-11-13 11:26:49
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  1. acquired immune deficiency syndrome
    • syndrome caused by human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)  the renders immune cells ineffective, permitting opportunistic infections, malignancies, and neurologic diseases to develop
    • transmitted sexually or through contaminated food
  2. active immunity
    • long lasting immunity that results from stimulating the body to produce its own antibodies
    • develop either naturally, in response to an infection, or artificially  in response to the administration of a vaccine
  3. agranulocytes
    group of leukocytes w/o granules in their nuclei
  4. anemia
    condition of reduce # of RBCs, hemoglobin, or packed red cells in blood, resulting in diminished ability of RBC's to transport oxygen to the tissues
  5. antibody
    substance produced by the body that destroys or inactivates an antigen that has entered the body
  6. anticoagulant
    a drug that prevents clotting
  7. antigen
    substance that when introduced into the body, causes the formation of antibodies against
  8. aplastic anemia
    a NORMOCYTIC - NORMOCHROMIC type of anemia characterized by the failure of bone marrow to produces RBCs
  9. autoimmune disease
    • an disorder characterized by abnormal function of the immune system that causes the body to produce antibodies against itself, resulting in tissue destruction or loss of function
    • rheumatoid arthritis and lupus are examples
  10. basic metabolic disease
    • battery of tests used as a general screen for disease
    • includes test for Ca2+, CO2 , chloride, creatinine, glucose, potassium, sodium, and blood urea nitrogen (BUN)
  11. BUN
    blood urea nitrogen
  12. basophil
    granular leukocyte, named for DARK stain of its granules, that brings anticoagulant substances to inflamed tissues
  13. blood chemistry
    test of the fluid portion of blood to measure the amounts  of its chemical constituents (glucose and cholesterol)
  14. blood chemistry panels
    • special batteries of automated blood chemistry tests preformed on a single sample of blood
    • used as a general screen for disease or to target specific organs or condititons 
    • metabolic panel
    • lipid panel
    • arthritis panel
  15. blood cultures
    • test to determine if infection is present in the bloodstream by isolating a specimen of blood in an environment that encourages the growth of microorganisms
    • the specimen is observed and the organisms that grow in the culture are identified
  16. blood indices
    calculation of RBC, HGB, and HCT results to determine the average size, [hemoglobin], and the content of RBC to classify an anemia
  17. blood transfusion
    introduction of blood product into the circulation of a recipient whose blood volume is reduced or deficient in some manner
  18. bone marrow aspiration
    needle aspiration of bone marrow tissue for pathologic examination
  19. bone marrow biopsy
    pathologic examination of bone marrow tissue
  20. bone marrow transplant
    transplantation of healthy bone marrow from a compatible donor to a diseased recipient to stimulate blood cell production
  21. CD4 cell count
    • a measure of the number of CD4 cells (a subset of T lymphocytes) in the blood; used in monitoring the course of HIV and in time of treatment of AIDS
    • the normal adult range is 600-1500 cells in a given volume of blood
  22. complete blood count
    • common lab blood test preformed as a screen of general health or for diagnostic purposes and typically includes the component tests that follow
    • test results are usually reported along with normal values so that the clinician can interpret the results based on the instrumentation used by the lab
    • normal ranges also may vary depending on the region and climate
  23. comprehensive metabolic panel
    • test preformed in a addition to the basic panel fr expanded screening
    • albumin
    • billirubin
    • alkaline phosphatase
    • protein 
    • ALT
    • AST
  24. cross-matching
    method of matching a donor's blood to the recipient by mixing a sample in a test tube to determine compatibility
  25. eosinophil
    • granular leukocyte, named for the rose-colored stain of its granules, that increases in allergic and some infectious reaction
    • eso= dawn-colored, rosy
  26. differential count
    • determination of number of each type of WBC in a stained blood smear
    • each type is counted and reported as a % of the total examined 
    • type of WBC: 
    • lymphocyte → normal range: 25-33%

    monocyte→ normal range: 3-7%
  27. erythroblastosis fetalis
    • disorder that results from the incompatibility of a fetus with Rh- positive blood and a mother with Rh-negative blood, causing RBC destruction in the fetus
    • a blood transfusion is necessary to save the fetus
  28. erythrocyte
    • RBC
    • transports Oand CO2
  29. Erythrocyte Sedimentation Rate (ESR)
    time test that measures the rate at which RBCs settle through a volume of plasma
  30. Granulocytes
    group of leukocytes containing granules in their cytoplasm
  31. Hematocrit (HT or Hct)
    measurement of the % of packed RBC in a given volume of blood
  32. hemochromatosis
    hereditary bleeding disorders caused by a defect in clotting factors necessary for the coagulation of blood
  33. hemoglobin
    • the protein-iron compound in erythrocytes that transport O2 and CO
    • a test to determine the number of hemoglobin (expressed in grams)
  34. hemolysis
    breakdown of RBC membrane
  35. hemophilia
    group of hereditary bleeding disorder caused by a defect in the clotting factors necessary for the coagulation of blood
  36. immunity
    process of disease protection induced by the exposure to an antigen
  37. hemostatic
    a drug that stops the flow of blood with in the vessels
  38. immunocompromised
    impaired immunologic defenses caused by an immunodeficiency disorder or by the therapy with immunosuppressive agents
  39. immunosuppression
    impaired ability to provide an immune response
  40. immunotherapy
    use of biologic agents to prevent or treat disease by stimulating the body's own defense mechanism, as seen in the treatment of AIDs, cancer or allergy
  41. Iron Deficiency Anemia
    • a MICROCYTIC- HYPOCHROMIC type of anemia characterized by a lack of iron that affects the production of hemoglobin.
    • characterized by small RBCs containing low amounts of HB
  42. Leukemia
    • chronic or acute malignant (cancerous) disease of the blood-forming organs
    • characterized by small RBCs containing low amount of HB
  43. leukocyte
    • WBC
    • protects that body from harmful invading substances
  44. lymph
    fluid that is circulated through the lymph vessels
  45. lymph capillaries
    microscopic vessels that draw lymph from tissues to the lymph vessels
  46. lymph ducts
    collecting channels that carry lymph from the lymph nodes to the veins
  47. lymphs node dissection
    removal of possible cancer-carrying lymph nodes for pathologic examination
  48. lymph nodes
    • many small, oval structures that filter lymph from the lymph vessels 
    • major locations include the cervical, axillary, and inguinal regions
  49. lymph vessel
    vessels that receive lymph capillaries and circulate it to the lymph nodes
  50. lymphadenectomy
    removal of lymph node
  51. lymphadenopathy
    ENLARGED (diseased) lymph nodes
  52. lymphocyte
    • agranulocytic leukocyte that is active in the process of immunity 
    • the 3 categories of lymphocytes are
    • 1. T cells = thymus dependent
    • 2. B cells = bone marrow-derived
    • 3. natural killer cells = nk
  53. lymphocytopenia
    abnormally reduced number of lymphocytes
  54. lymphoma
    • any neoplastic disorder of lymph tissue, usually malignant
    • Hodgkin disease
  55. mean corpuscular (cell) hemoglobin concentration (MCHC)
    • calculation of the average hemoglobin concentration in each RBC using HGB and HCT
    • results: MCHC=HBB/HCT
  56. mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH)
    • calculation of the CONTENT (WEIGHT) of Hb in the average RBC using HGB and RBC 
    • results: MCH = HGB/RBC
  57. mean corpuscular volume (MCV)
    • calculation of the volume (size) of individual RBC using HCT and RBC
    • results: MCV = HCT/ RBC
  58. metastasis
    process of cancer cell spreading by blood or lymph circulation to distant organ
  59. monocyte
    agranulocytic leukocyte that preforms phagocytosis to fight infection
  60. mononucleosis
    condition caused by Epstein-Barr virus and characterized by an increase in mononuclear cells (monocytes & lymphocytes) in the blood along with enlarged lymph nodes (lymphadenopathy), fatigue, and sore throat (pharyngitis)
  61. myelodysplasia
    • disorder within the bone marrow characterized by a proliferation of abnormal stem cells
    • usually develops into a specific type of leukemia
  62. neutropenia
    decreased number of neutrophils
  63. neutrophil
    granular leukocyte, named for the neutral stain of its granules, that fights infection by swallowing bacteria (phagocytosis)
  64. pancytopenia
    abnormally reduced number of all cellular components in the blood
  65. partial thromboplastin time
    test to determine coagulation defects, such as platelet disorders
  66. passive immunity
    short-lasting immunity that results from foreign antibodies that are conveyed either naturally, though the placenta to a fetus, or artificially, by injection of a serum containing antibodies
  67. perniscious anemia
    a MACRO-NORMOCHROMIC type of anemia characterized by an inadequate supply of vitamin B12, causing RBCs to become large, varied in shape, and reduced in number
  68. phlebotomy
    incision into or puncture of a vein to withdraw blood for testing
  69. plasma
    • liquid portion of the blood and lymph
    • contains water, proteins, and cellular components (RBC, EBC, and platelets)
  70. plasmapheresis
    • removal of plasma from the body with separation and extraction of specific elements  (ex platelets) followed by reinfusion
    • apheresis = a withdrawal
  71. platelet count
    • calculation of the number of thrombocytes in the blood 
    • the normal adult range is 150,000- 400,000 platelets in a given volume of blood
  72. platelets
    • thrombocytes 
    • cell fragments in the blood that are essential for blood clotting (coagulation)
  73. polycythemia
    increased number of erythrocytes and hemoglobin in the blood
  74. polymorphonuclear leukocyte (PMN)
    • another term for neutrophil
    • referring to the many segments in its nucleus
  75. prothrombin
    protein substance in the blood that is essential to the clotting process
  76. prothrombin time (PT)
    test to measure activity of prothrombin in the blood
  77. red blood count
    count of number of RBC in a given volume of blood obtained via manual or automated lab methods
  78. Rh factor
    presence or lack of antigens on the surface of RBCs which causes a reaction btween Rh+ and Rh= blood
  79. Rh negative
    ABSENCE of antigen
  80. Rh positive
    PRESENCE of antigen
  81. septicemia
    systemic disease cause by infection with microorganisms and their toxins in circulating blood
  82. serum
    liquid portion of the blood that remains after clotting       ...................
  83. spleen
    organ between the stomach and diaphragm that filters out aging blood cells, removes cellular debris by performing phagocytosis, and provides an environment for lymphocytes to initiate immune respone
  84. splenectomy
    removal of the spleen
  85. thromboplastin
    substance present in tissues, platelets, and leukocytes that is necessary for coagulation
  86. thrombocytopenia
    abnormally decreased number of platelets in the blood, impairing the clotting process
  87. thymus
    primary gland of the lymphatic system, located within the mediastinum, that helps to maintain the body's immune response by producing T lymphocytes
  88. venipuncture
    • incision into or puncture of a vein to withdraw blood for testing
    • phelbotomy
  89. white blood count
    count of the number of WBC in a given volume of blood obtained via manual or automated lab methods
  90. ALT
    • alanine aminotransferase
    • enzyme
  91. AST
    • aspartate aminotransferase 
    • enzyme
  92. BUN
    blood urea nitrogen
  93. CBC
    complete blood count
  94. ESR
    erythrocyte sedimentation rate
  95. HCT or Hct
    hematocrit
  96. HGB or Hgb
    hemoglobin
  97. MCH
    mean corpuscular (cell) HEMOGLOBIN
  98. MCHC
    Mean corpuscular (cell) hemoglobin CONCENTRATION
  99. MVC
    mean corpuscular (cell) volume
  100. PLT
    platelet count
  101. PMN
    polymorphonuclear (leukocyte)
  102. PT
    prothrombin time
  103. PTT
    partial thromboplastin time

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