A perspective on criminal offenders and punishment based on the view that offenders exercise free will and engage in criminal behaviour as a result of rational choice and that punishment must be (1)swift, (2)certain, and (3)severe
Positivist (liberal) School
A perspective on criminal offenders and punishment based on the view that criminal behaviour is determined and that offenders require individualized treatment
Critical (radical) school
A perspective on crime, offenders, and punishment that highlights the role of economics, politics, power, and oppression in the formulation of laws and the administration of justice
Corrections policies formulated in pursuit of political objectives, often in the abscence of an informed public or in spite of public opinion and that are centrered on being "tough on crime"
NIMBY (Not in My Back Yard)
The resistence if community residents in efforts of corrections systems to locate programming and residences for offenders in the community
An approach to responding to offenders based on the principle that criminal behaviour injures victims, communities, and offenders and that all of these parties should be involved in efforts to address the cause of the behaviour and it's consequences.