notes from 10/1

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notes from 10/1
2013-10-07 21:30:20
lifespan psych

prep for lifespan
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  1. Piagets preoperational stage
    • 2-7 years. kids begin using simple symbolism
    •      -words/images
  2. Piagets symbolic function substage
    • 2-4 years
    • -mentally represent objects that are not present
    • -egocentrism
    • -animism
  3. lack of perspective taking
  4. childs belief that inanimate objects have lifelike qualities and are capable of action
  5. Piagets intuitive thought stage
    • 4-7 years
    • -primitive reasoning 
    • -no conservation
  6. cognitive skills are shaped by social interactions, language, and culture
    Vygotsky's socio cultural cognitive theory
  7. range of tasks that are too difficult for children to master alone, but can be learned with guidance of other children and adults
    zone of proximal development
  8. which limit of the zpd: basic level of problem solving that can occur with guidance "buds"
    upper limit
  9. which limit of the zpd: level of problem solving that the child can perform independently (fruits)
    lower limit
  10. internal speech is useful for ____, _____, and ___ _____ behavior (think self regulation)
    planning, guiding, and self monitoring
  11. go over teaching strategies on page 221
  12. 1st explicit declarative memory is usually between ages of
    3-4 years
  13. hippocampus is one of the last brain structures to develop post natally, this could explain
    infantile amnesia
  14. young children have higher levels of suggestibility compared to preteens/teens/adults. they are vulnerable to suggestions in retrieving long term memories
  15. examples of suggestibility
    • -non-leading questions 
    • -open ended questions
    • -not a clean interview (coaching)
    • -non neutral tone
  16. child centered kindergardens are well rounded, but they may not prepare in terms of
  17. name this type of kindergarten: 
    -children learn from hands on experience
    -play is important
    -each child develops @ a unique rate
    -process of learning is more emphasized than content
    child centered kindergarten
  18. name this type of kindergarten: 
    -content is what is focused on 
    -benchmarks are presented to class as a whole
    academically focused kindergarten
  19. -focus originated from educating children with intellectual disabilities 
    -children have freedom and spontaneity in classroom
    -children are evaluated individually 
    -gifted children excel
    -slower children can catch up
  20. criticisms of Montessori
    • -may no encourage social development 
    • -child may have difficulty transitioning to non montessori
  21. pro of Montessori
    children frequently become self regulated. problem solvers who know how to make choices
  22. parenting styles factors
    • -responsiveness/warmth
    • -demanding/control
  23. name this parenting style:
    -low in warmth, high in control
    -restrictive and punitive style
    -little verbal exchange 
    -discipline is harsh
  24. name this type of parenting style:
    -high in warmth and high in control
    -warm but firm
    -encourage discussion and independence
  25. name this type of parenting style:
    -low in warmth and low in control
    -not involved in childs life
    -hands off
    -kids are on their own
  26. name this type of parenting style: 
    -high in warmth and low in control
    -lack of discipline/limits
    -child is in charge
  27. which parenting type do these outcomes point to?
    -poor communication skills
    -anxious regarding social comparison
    -fail to initiate activity
  28. which parenting type do these outcomes point to?
    -socially competent
    -socially reliant
    -socially responsible
  29. which parenting type do these outcomes point to?
    -poor self control
    -lack of independence
    -socially incompetent
    -no external self control, no limits to teach child self control
  30. which parenting type do these outcomes point to?
    -frequently do not respect others
    -lack self control
    -socially incompetent
  31. notable cause of child maltreatment
    -1/3 of parents who were abused will go on to repeat the pattern with their own children
  32. key thoughts from Dr. Alfred Adler
    • -every child seeks to find identity within a family system
    • -family may favor a specific gender
    • -when an identity is taken, it becomes "off" the list
  33. characteristics of a first child
    • -more conforming, adult oriented, and academically successful
    • -experience more anxiety, and difficulty coping
    • -intelligent, conscientious
  34. characteristics of second borns
    • -creative
    • -non conformist
    • -more likely to be rebellious, liberal, agreeable
  35. the baby of the family is most motivated to...
    surpass the older siblings. has the greatest difficulty of being seen as an adult
  36. some reasons that divorce rates went up
    • -women's roles changed dramatically
    • -non traditional family system because of dual earner roles
    • -no fault divorces made it easier to get a divorce
  37. 5 mediating factors which determines impact of divorce
    • -level of conflict between parents (most damaging)
    • -psychological adjustments of parents
    • -amount of contact with parents
    • -economic stress
    • -other life changes related to divorce
  38. higher adjustment the better for the children. this is an aspect of
    psychological adjustment of parents
  39. more contact with parents (assuming that the parents are adequate) the better for the child. this is an aspect of
    the amount of contact with the parents