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qualitative observations use
- senses (think qualities)
- examples of qualitative observations from lab A - manilla or gold, something inside, rectangular
quantitative observations use
- numbers and or measurements
- examples of quantitative observations from Lab A - 10x13, 7 objects inside, 3 red, 1 yellow, 2 metal, 1 multicolor
an inference is
- an interpretation or an explanation of an observation
- "temperatures influence male crocodile hatchings"
an observation is
- unbiased and objective
- anyone can do it
- it is the initial step for the scientific method
In lab A, what was the dependent (responding) variable?
percent of males hatched
in Lab A, what was the manipulated (independent) variable?
which axis gets the dependent (responding) variable?
y axis (the vertical one)
which axis gets the manipulated (independent) variable?
the x axis (the horizontal one)
differences between a controlled group and an experimental group?
controlled group is one where there is no manipulated variable, while a manipulated variable is introduced into an experimental group. the control group is used to compare with experimental group
list a controlled variable for the meal worm experiment we did in lab A?
Are prokaryotic cells multicellular?
no - they don't have nuclei or membrane bound organelles, either
are plant cells prokaryotic?
- no - eukaryotes
- they also have cell walls, chloroplasts and large central vacuoles for water storage
are animal cells eukaryotes?
do animal cells have a cell wall?
- nope. just plants have cell walls
- animal cells are eukaryotic and multicellular and their cells have membranes, nuclei, membrane-bound organelles.
do plant cells have a large central vacuole?
do protist cells live in dry environments?
- nope. they live in freshwater, marine and moist terrestrial environments and can be used as indicators of soil and water quality
- some are disease-causing parasites
how do protist cells move?
with tail like flagella or hair-like cilia
number of different types of organism is called?
the number of each type of individual organism is called
- live in very primitive environments, bacteria
prokaryotes - common bacteria
protists, fungi, animal and plant cells
what is a protist?
- unicellular or simple multicellular eukaryotic organisms
- different protists can photosynthesize or consume bacteria and other protists
- capable of movement, some aggregate into colonies that move together
why are protists important?
- indicators of soil and water quality
- food for ecosystems, including plankton
- aquatic protists (algae) provide at least half the oxygen supply on earth
predator prey relationship
the reason photosynthetic protists exploded first in Lab B, followed by predator protists
the process by which molecules tend to move from an area of high concentration to an area of low concentration
special case of diffusion in regards to the movement of water. water moves towards an area of high solute concentration.
during osmosis, water moves across
a semi-permeable membrane
diffusion occurs slower/faster when a high concentration solution is present on the other side of a membrane?
slower - in diffusion, it's attracted to lower concentrations
- concentration same inside and out
- no net movement of water in or out of cell
- a cell has a high concentration of solution outside of cell than inside
- water will move out of the cell towards the higher solute concentration
- concentration is lower on the outside than inside of the cell
- water moves into the cell
when given an iv why do we use a saline solution instead of pure distilled water?
- because water would rush into a saltier cell and the cell would explode
is it easier for cells to gradually evolve the capacity to be isotonic in freshwater or in marine environments?
- marine environments
- freshwater would be constantly fighting to prevent hypotonic
what is the significance of temperature on the rate of diffusion in nature?
higher the heat, the quicker the reaction - it speeds diffusion
3 examples of how diffusion or osmosis keep you alive?
- hydration - through osmosis our cell walls stay hydrated
- digestion - through diffusion, we get our nutrients
- oxygen into blood - diffusion
cells that can perform photosynthesis
what captures energy from light?
equation for photosynthesis?
6CO2 + 6H2O yields 6O2 + C6H12O6
equation for cellular respiration?
C6H12O6 +6O2 yields 6CO2 + 6H20
what molecules do you need to form before doing photosynthesis?
In nature, what else would you need (besides carbon dioxide and water) to have before you could accomplish photosynthesis?
sunlight and chloroplasts
what gas is absorbed and what gas is released with people?
- Oxygen absorbed
- CO2 released
what gas is absorbed and what gas is released with trees?
co2 absorbed, 02 released
what gas is absorbed and what is released with soil bacteria?
oxygen absorbed, carbon dioxide released
what did we learn about seeds, yeast, humans and sprite in Lab C's "what's that gas activity" (bromothymol blue changed yellow when we blew into it)
a chemical reaction occurred with carbon dioxide, noting that all of us use cellular respiration and release carbon dioxide
- versions of a gene
- you get one from each parent
an organism carrying two identical alleles
an organism carrying two different alleles
the study of heredity
the basic unit of heredity (a segment of DNA located at a particular place on a chromosome that contains the information to make a specific molecule)
one of several alternative forms of a particular gene
the genetic information of an individual located in the DNA
the physical appearance of an individual
to determine a person's blood type, what is added to their blood?
antibodies - they're protein markers that test for the presence of a specific antigen
surface proteins on the red blood cells
If you have blood type A, what antigen do you have, what antibody is produced, and why?
- A antigen
- B antibody
- Because the antibody has the specific shape to fit with the antigen, A antibodies would react with the antigen and cause clotting
What is O for a blood type?
- O is recessive so if you have one O allele, you're either A (AO), B (BO)
- If you're type O, you have OO genotype
If you have blood type O, what antigen do you have, what antibody is produces and why?
- No antigens, have both A&B antibodies
- no clotting would happen if a fake antibody was present on a red blood cells (because no antigens to attack)
- but if you got a blood transfusion from someone with a different blood type, there would be clotting because you're introducing antigens
the manipulation of genetic material to aid in the production of a certain product
DNA is a polymer made of many
used to recognize and snip out a section of the DNA molecule that is expected to show differences between indivduals
humans share how much of their DNA?
to see differences in size between DNA fragments, researchers subject extracted and fragmented DNA to a process called
what does agarose gel do in electrophoresis?
- forms a matrix (like a Jello jiggler) - one one end of the gel, there are wells where DNA samples are placed
- electricity is sent through the gel - it moves from the negative charged end to the positively charged end
- negatively charged DNA moves towards positive end of chamber but the gel won't let it transfer easily
- depending on size of the fragment, the DNA gets stuck in the gel
what does the buffer do in electrophoresis?
maintains pH and electrical current
what does the blue loading dye do in electrophoresis?
- adds weight to the DNA sample so it will fall to the bottom of the gel
- provide a general reference to see how quickly samples travel down the gel over time
what does fast blast stain do?
after electrophoresis is complete, the stain dyes the actual DNA fragment bands
what property of DNA makes electrophoresis possible?
what ways does biotech improve human life?
insulin, GMOs, gene therapy
what does complimentary base pairing mean?
DNA is double stranded and each nitrogenous base on one strand is paired to its complement on the other strand
what complement pairs with A in DNA?
what compliment pairs with C in DNA?
physical and/or behavioral characteristics that may help animals survive and reproduce more easily than other individuals under a specific set of environmental conditions
- adaptations are the characteristics
- natural selection is the concept
- novel genetic changes
- different genotypes arise through mutations
can you, as an individual, go through biological adaptation?
- hybrid females that can produce young without mating
- it's a kind of asexual reproduction
4 tenets of natural selection
- differential survival and reproduction (better suited to environment survive)
don't share common ancestor
any structures shared by two species with common ancestry
three basic types of teeth and functions?
- canines (biting and shredding, indicates secondary consumer)
- molars (grinding and mashing - primary consumers if all are molars)
- incisors (snipping and cutting - primary and secondary have these)
canines plus molars means
it eats meat and plants
convoluted bone structures - only warm blooded animals have these
purpose of turbinates?
warm air before it reaches internal cavities
so instead of turbinates, the skull of a cold blooded animal would have
hole where nose is
where do predatory animals have their eye sockets?
straight ahead, for depth perception
prey animals have eye sockets?
on the sides, for peripheral vision
Producers in the food chain are
primary consumers eat
secondary consumers eat
primary consumers and producers
cell theory tenets?
- all living things made of cells
- cell is basic unit of life
- cell has all components necessary to complete all of the activities of life (growing, using/making energy, reproducing, etc.)
- an organism can be comprised of one living cell or many cells
type of microscope needed to see cells?
compound microscope has two types of lenses. they are?
- ocular (closest to your eye - 10x)
- objective (closest to specimen - variable, 4x, 10x, 40x)
total magnification possible thru microscope
ocular x objective
- light is refracted and produces a virtual image on the retina
- upside down e
depth of field
- crossed threads wet mount slide
- only one piece of thread should be in focus at a time - use fine focus knob
the replacement of one species by another in a given environment