PSY 336 Exam 2 (Final)

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PSY 336 Exam 2 (Final)
2013-12-17 02:48:09
Emotions Exam Drumheller

Exam 2 Good luck!
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  1. Parasympathetic Nervous System
    • Vagus Nerve (top) and Sacral region (bottom)
    • Decrease heart rate and blood pressure
    • Dilates certain arteries to facilitate blood flow
    • Increase digestive processes --> moving digested food through gastrointestinal tract
    • Constricts pupils and bronchioles
    • Stimulates the secretion of various fluids throughout body (digestive glands, salivation, tears)
  2. Sympathetic Nervous System
    • Involves over a dozen different neural pathways originating at several sites on the spinal cord
    • Increases heart rate, blood pressure, ad cardiac output
    • Vasoconstriction in most veins and arteries
    • Shuts down digestive processes
    • Increases many processes that provide energy for the body
    • Reduces activity of natural killer cells, which are involved in immune responses
    • Helps prepare the body for the fight or flight response
  3. Is there evidence for emotion-specific autonomic activity?

    Review various sources of evidence discussed in class
    • James: Yes
    • Canon: No
    • Schacter and Singer: No
    • Eckman & Friesen: Yes
  4. Damasio’s somatic marker hypothesis

    How pertinent to Phineas Gage’s story?
    • When we make decisions, rather than examining every option, some possibilities are emotionally blocked off and some are emotionally attractive
    • The guidance system is the body itself: emotional events are experienced as bodily reactions, a.k.a. somatic markers
    • When we damage the ventromedial frontal cortex, we no longer have access to somatic markers

    • Phineas Gage:
    • Many patients with this kind of brain damage (ventromedial frontal cortex) have their emotions "blunted" like Gage
    • Show inappropriate manners and a lack of concern for the well-being of others
    • Suffer from "pseudo-psychopathy" or "acquired sociopathy"?
  5. Positron Emission Tomography (PET)
    • Inject radioactive element in brain They are unstable and break down
    • Detects tracer through blood stream
    • As it breaks down and emits radiation, PET picks it up
    • 5-10 mm3
    • Takes long to acquire image (40 seconds)
  6. functional Magnetic Resonance Imagine (fMRI)
    • Magnetic properties of hemoglobin
    • Scans changes in blood cells of hemoglobin
    • Resolution better
    • Faster (6-10 seconds)
  7. In general, what are PET and fMRI measuring?  (hint:  they are not actually measuring the brain’s electrical activity)
    Both measure metabolic activity
  8. What are the 2 main limitations to PET and fMRI techniques?
    • Limitations:
    • Correlation ≠ Causation
    • Both have poor temporal resolution
  9. Neuroanatomical orientations/directions
    • Anterior (Rosatral) / Posterior (Caudal)
    • Dorsal (Superior) / Ventral (Inferior)

    • Medial / Lateral
  10. Neuro-terminology for sections (i.e., orientation of “slices”)
    • Coronal/Frontal Section

    • Sagittal Section

    • Axial/Horizontal/Tansverse Section (Hannibal Lecter view)
  11. Limbic system – structures included in the “Classic Limbic Lobe” (i.e., Papez circuit)
    • Papez Circuit
    • Cingulate gyrus
    • Hypothalamus
    • Anterior thalamus
    • Hippocampus

    • Limbic System
    • Amygdala
    • Orbitofrontal cortex
    • Parts of basal ganglia
  12. In humans, 80% of total brain is taken up by cortex

    General role of prefrontal cortex in emotional processing
    • Involved in representation of:
    • Goals
    • Rewards
    • Approach-related tendencies
    • Withdrawal-related tendencies
  13. Area destroyed in Phineas Gage -- where is it located?
    Ventromedial Prefrontal Cortex
  14. How does damage to the ORBITOFRONTAL CORTEX hinder social decision making?  

    Remember some of the examples I gave in class – these should help you remember.
    Ex. A patient with this kind of damage will see a hammer, nail, and picture – then will automatically hang up the picture without any directions.  
    When this same patient sees a needle, then a doctor coming who drops his trousers and turns around – the patient will stick the needle in the doctor’s butt without thinking twice!
    • Responses seem overly dependent on perceptual information ignoring social cues
    • At times, have difficulty inhibiting inappropriate social responses, such as aggressive impulses

    • Often to show:
    • Change in personality
    • Irresponsibility
    • Lack of concern for the present or future
  15. Where is the Amygdala located?
    Medial temporal lobe
  16. Amygdala (Function)
    • Central emotional computer for the brain
    • Responsible for assigning emotional significance to events

    • Important for normal responses to expressions
    • Increases the vigilance or readiness of cortical response systems when emotional stimuli are present
  17. Implicit emotional learning
    • Amygdala dependent
    • Similar to classical conditioning
    • Fear conditioning
    • Unconditioned stimulus 
    • Ex: Man survives train wreck, goes to bar, recognizes man but doesn't remember name, gets anxious --> Person (NS) acquire aversive properties reminding him of train wreck
  18. Explicit emotional learning
    Amygdala interacts with hippocampal memory system

    • Interacts with hippocampal memory system in 2 ways:
    • 1. Necessary for normal indirect emotional responses to stimuli whose emotional properties are learned explicitly
    • 2. Can act to enhance the strength of explicit or declarative memories for emotional events by modulating the storage of these memories
  19. Oxytocin

    When is this chemical released (i.e., from what kinds of behaviors)?

    Is it released to promote bonding with everyone?
    Promotes bonding behavior

    Involved in lactation, maternal bonding, and sexual interaction

    Promotes bonding toward a person's in-group
  20. Hemispheric specialization

    Which is associated with primary versus secondary appraisal?
    • Right Hemisphere
    • Responds more readily to emotional content 
    • Unconscious; automatic
    • Primary appraisal

    • Left Hemisphere
    • More ready to interpret experience in terms of language
    • Conscious; though-like; giver rise to specific emotions
    • Secondary appraisal
  21. Primary appraisal
    • Automatic emotional reactions to events and objects in the environment, which motivate rapid approach or avoidance response
    • Involves amygdala
  22. Secondary appraisal
    Provide more deliberate, conscious, complex assessments in terms of such matters as what caused the event and what to do about it
  23. Primary appraisal vs. Secondary appraisal
    • Primary appraisal is not just positive or negative; each mode is a state of readiness
    • Secondary appraisal → core relational theme (the essential meaning for each emotion)
  24. Infant's Emotions: newborns
    • Crying
    • Disgust to sour tastes
  25. Infant's Emotions: 1st month
    "Social smiles"
  26. Harlow (1959) monkey experiment – general methodology and results
    • 2 mothers - wire with bottle and cloth with nothing
    • Infant monkeys isolated for 6 months

    • 18-19 hours with cloth mother
    • 2 hours with wire mother
  27. Development of empathy and compassion
    • Empathy is essential to prosocial behavior, kindness, caring, and justice
    • With increasing cognitive capacity our ability to understand the world becomes more complex and allows for more appropriate responses to the other person
    • Historically, compassion (i.e., empathy or sympathy) has been thought of as the very foundation of society
  28. Which emotions require a sense of differentiation of self from others?

  29. Behavioral versus mentalistic ideas of emotion
    • Has been argued that children under 4 are not capable of understanding causes of others' emotions
    • Ideas of emotion are more behavioral than mentalistic

    • 2-3 year olds have mentalistic conceptions of emotions
    • 3-4 year olds give reasons for experiencing emotions in which they make reference to the goal stages (or desires) of other people
    • 4 year olds good at explaining people's actions in terms of these people's own mental states, including desires and emotions

    This development important for cooperative partnership
  30. 3 kinds of social motivation
    • Attachment
    • Primary function is protection and care of the immature infant

    • Affiliation
    • Affection; "warmth"
    • Draws individuals togethers even when they are not genetically related

    • Assertion
    • "Power"
    • Motivation of competition and conflict (to rise in social hierarchy)
  31. Function of attachment
    • To be protective
    • Maternal sensitivity
    • Affiliation, warmth, and affection
  32. 4 negative behaviors most damaging to relationships
    • Criticism
    • Defensiveness
    • Stonewalling (avoid talking)
    • Contempt for partner (resentment)

    • Done by Gottman & Levenson (1983)
    • 93% accuracy who would stay married or divorce