COMM107 exam1

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COMM107 exam1
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  1. Linear Model of Communication
    • One directional communication
    • Source encodes a message, sends to receiver, receiver decodes message.
    • ex. A news anchor on a show talking to people watching TV because they can’t interact back
  2. Interactional Model of Communication
    • Source encodes a message, sends to receiver, receiver decodes message, gives feedback (two-directional)
    • Ex. Teacher asking a question and student answer, teacher possibly giving feedback on answer.
  3. Transactional Model of Communication
    • Messages sent and received at the same time, this is the most effective model
    • Ex. On a talk show, when the host is conversing with his guest, the guest is clapping/laughing simultaneously
  4. Impromptu Speaking
    • Off the top of the head speaking with little to no preparation.
    • Pros: Natural, Spontaneous, Genuine
    • Cons: No prep time, no research, can be disorganized
  5. Extemporaneous Speaking
    • Developed talking points, background research, outlines and notes.
    • Pros: Security of notes, quotes, organization, still sounds natural
    • Cons: Tempted to look at notes/look down
  6. Manuscript Speaking
    • Written out and delivered word for word.
    • Pros: Accurate language and security.
    • Cons: Unnatural, easy to lose audience, easy to lose enthusiasm
  7. Mindmapping Speaking
    Visual instead of physical
  8. Memorized Speaking
    • Written word for word and delivered entirely from memory
    • Pros: Similar to manuscript
    • Cons: May forget information, easy to get lost
  9. Reliability Test of Evidence
    • Is the source objective and competent as possible?
    • Pass: A legal document released by a government agency
    • Fail: A personal blog post relating to the writer’s experiences rather than statistics or facts that are less subjective.
  10. Recency Test of Evidence
    • Is the information as recent as possible?
    • Pass: A study on a current issue written in 2013.
    • Fail: A study on a current issue written in 1976.
  11. Completeness Test of Evidence
    • Is the information from a variety of sources?
    • Pass: If you included information from a variety of credible sources.
    • Fail: If you only used one website or book.
  12. Accuracy Test of Evidence
    • Is the information verifiable and easily confirmed
    • Pass: If your information is consistent across a variety of sources.
    • Fail: If your information was only found in the source you used.
  13. Nonverbal Communication
    Composed of all those messages that people exchange beyond the words themselves
  14. Neurological Nonverbals
    Reflexive; they’re responses to stimuli and they’re automatic reactions, like twitches or flinching at a loud noise
  15. Cultural Nonverbals
    Reactions or behaviors that you've learned through cultural background; like how to greet someone
  16. statement of the speech's central idea
    It’s the main point, what the speech is about, and the purpose/goal of the speech. It’s intended to keep the speaker on course for developing a purposeful and well-organized speech
  17. Introduction of a Speech
    Hook, background info, central idea, benevolence (make the audience like you)
  18. Body of a Speech
    Main points, supporting evidence, examples, transitions, oral citations
  19. Conclusion of a Speech
    Summary, clincher
  20. Two major challenges an informative speaker faces
    Avoiding persuasion, and getting the audience to understand and retain the information
  21. Dynamic Characteristic of Communication
    The way we communicate is constantly changing
  22. Continuous Characteristic of Communication
    Communication never stops.  Even when you are alone, your brain is always working/ remaining active so therefore it cannot stop
  23. Irreversible Characteristic of Communication
    You cannot undo a sent message
  24. Interactive Characteristic of Communication
    We react to our own ways we communicate and to others around us.  And the same goes for the other people
  25. Contextual Characteristic of Communication
    When communicating, we develop/gain new skills to communicate effectively
  26. Encode
    the process of creating a message, putting an idea into message form
  27. Decode
    the process of translating the received messages
  28. Frame of Reference
    • A perceptual screen used by receivers to filter message ideas based on their background and culture
    • What you base your perceptions on
    • World view
    • Includes culture, experiences
  29. Noise
    any internal or external interference in the communication process
  30. Environmental
    • outside interference that prevents receiver from gaining message
    • ex: noise from construction
  31. Physiological-Impairment
    • physical problem that can block effective sending or receiving
    • ex: deafness or blindness
  32. Semantic
    • problems regarding the meaning of words
    • ex: scientific language to non-scientists
  33. Syntactical
    • inappropriate grammar usage
    • ex:conflicting tenses
  34. Organizational
    • difficult to grasp ideas when not presented in a structured order
    • ex: jumping from topic to topic with no logical order
  35. Cultural
    • preconceived, unyielding attitudes derived from a group or society about how members of that culture should act or in what they should or should not believe
    • ex: religious disagreement about a deity
  36. Psychological
    • stress, frustration, irritation hinders effective communication
    • ex: angry people may not listen to the other person
  37. % of Communication is nonverbal?
    90%
  38. What are four aspects of a good outline?
    parallelism, coordination, subordination, and division
  39. Parallelism
    Using the same verb tense in your headings
  40. Coordination
    Headings should have the same significance
  41. Subordination
    Headings should be general, subheadings more specific
  42. Division
    Headings should be divided into two or more parts

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