Chapter 42_Nutrition

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nursedgm87
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239383
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Chapter 42_Nutrition
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2013-10-07 20:02:22
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Nutrition
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Nursing nutrition
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  1. What are the 6 essential nutrients a human must consume in order to stay healthy?
    • -Carbohydrates (starches and sugars)
    • -Proteins (amino acids)
    • -Fats (Saturated, monounsaturated, polyunsaturated)
    • -Water (Cells depend on fluid environment)
    • -Vitamins (Water or Fat soluble)
    • -Minerals (Catalysts for biochemical reactions)
  2. Quick Quiz! Which of the following statements is true about foods that have a low glycemic index?
    A. These foods should be encouraged because they have long-term benefits
    B. These foods should be discouraged because they are linked to diabetes and heart disease
    C. These foods should be discouraged because they do not provide enough glucose for activities of daily living
    D. These foods should be encouraged because they provide energy in the short term
    A. These foods should be encouraged because they have long-term benefits
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  3. True or False? Carbohydrates are not the main source of energy
    -False
  4. What are proteins essential for? (3)
    • -Growth
    • -Wound repair
    • -Maintenance of muscle fibers
  5. Proteins can also be known as...
    -Amino acids
  6. True or False? Proteins are part of the nitrogen balance process.
    True
  7. What are the names of the two healthier fats?
    • -Monounsaturated
    • -Polyunsaturated
  8. Which type of fat is a sign of an unhealthy diet when a nurse does blood work on a patient?
    -Cholesterol
  9. What is the name of unhealthy fats often found in processed food?
    -Transfatty acids
  10. Water makes up for.... of our body weight.
    60-70%
  11. Which kind of vitamins are fat soluble, therefore, are stored in our bodies?
    -Vitamins A, D, E, and K
  12. Which kind of vitamins are water soluble, there, are not stored in our bodies?
    -Vitamins C and B
  13. Give an example of food that contains vitamin A...
    -Carrots
  14. Sunlight provides us with vitamin...
    -D
  15. Give an example of food that contains vitamin E...
    -Green vegetables
  16. Give an example of food that contains vitamin K...
    • -Bananas
    • -Green vegetables
    • -Avocado
  17. Give an example of food that contains vitamin C?
    -Citrus
  18. Give an example of food that contains vitamin B?
    • -Whole grain
    • -Meat
  19. If you consume too much fat soluble vitamins, what could happen to you?
    -You could intoxicate
  20. Are minerals organic or inorganic elements?
    -Inorganic
  21. What are minerals useful for?
    -They are essential as catalysts in biochemical reactions
  22. What are the 4 steps of the digestive process?
    • 1-Digestion
    • 2-Absorption
    • 3-Metabolism and storage of nutrients
    • 4-Elimination
  23. What is peristalsis?
    -Series of muscle contractions that occur in your digestive tract
  24. Diabetics will follow a ... diet
    -Low sugar (low carb) diet
  25. Hypertensive patients will follow ... diet
    • -Low sodium
    • -Low cholesterol
  26. Anemic patients need to eat an ... diet
    -Iron rich diet
  27. What is the main reason why new mothers are taught that breastfeeding is extremely important for their new baby's health?
    -Because she shares her immune system by breastfeeding
  28. Which kind of vitamin is not present in breast milk?
    -Vitamin D
  29. Around what age can a baby be introduced to solid food? What is the first type of food given to babies?
    • -Around 6 months
    • -They're given rice (less chance of allergies)
  30. What are some signs of bulemia?
    -Teeth decay, esophagus bleeding, loss of hair, dehydration, electrolyte imbalance
  31. What are some signs of anorexia?
    Poor memory, dry, yellowish skin and brittle nails, constipation and bloating, teeth decay and gum damage, headaches, growth of fine hair all over the body and face
  32. Quick Quiz! A new mother is reluctant to breastfeed because she is afraid that it will be painful. What should the nurse do?
    A. Tell the mother that she must breastfeed because it is the best for the baby
    B. Tell her that breastfeeding is recommended by the Canadian Pediatric Society
    C. Listen to her concerns, and provide information related to breastfeeding
    D. Listen to her concerns, and provide information related to baby formulas
    C. Listen to her concerns, and provide information related to breastfeeding
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  33. When you're pregnant, it is recommended to eat ... more portions than usually recommended by the Canadian Food Guide.
    2-3 more portions than usually recommended
  34. Why do older adults need less food in order to function well?
    • -Slower metabolism
    • -They don't move as much
  35. What is an ovo-lacto-vegetarian diet?
    -No meat but eggs and milk ok
  36. What is a lacto-vegetarian diet?
    -Drink milk but no eggs
  37. What is a vegan diet?
    -Only plants
  38. When a nurse does blood work and wants to know more about your diet, which 3 elements will she look for to determine whether your diet is healthy or not?
    • -Cholesterol
    • -Glucose
    • -Hemoglobin (Iron)
  39. What are some signs that a patient might have dysphagia?
    • -Difficulty to swallow
    • -Cough when they eat or drink
    • -Don't have gag reflex
  40. What type of patient is given an NPO diet?
    • -Going into surgery
    • -'' ''      '' '' endoscopy
  41. What type of patient is given a clear liquid diet?
    -First meal after surgery
  42. What type of patient is given a thickened liquid diet?
    -Hard time swallowing
  43. What type of patient is given a pureed diet?
    -No teeth, difficulty swallowing
  44. What type of patient is given a high fiber diet?
    -Constipated patients
  45. What type of patient is given a low sodium diet?
    -Hypertensive
  46. What type of patient is given a low cholesterol diet?
    -Hypertensive
  47. When is it necessary to put a patient on a parenteral feeding diet?
    -When patient can no longer digest food through abdomen
  48. A nasogastric, jejunal or gastric tube feeding is a type of ... feeding.
    Enteral feeding
  49. True or False? Parenteral tube feeding is not a sterile procedure.
    False
  50. Why could parenteral feeding be dangerous for a patient and what has to be done in order to proceed the right way?
    -Double check with another nurse the minerals/food you're giving to a patient so that you don't administer a toxic dose of minerals or vitamins.
  51. Breakdown of biochemicals into simpler substances...
    -Catabolism
  52. Main source of energy in a person's diet...
    -Carbohydrates
  53. Proteins that must be ingested...
    -Essential amino acids
  54. Organic substances essential to normal metabolism...
    -Vitamins
  55. Difficulty swallowing...
    -Dysphagia
  56. Building of biochemical substances by the synthesis of nutrients...
    -Anabolism
  57. Energy requirement of a person at rest...
    -Basal metabolic rate
  58. Indicator used to determine a person's healthy weight...
    -Body Mass Index
  59. The nurse is teaching a client about healthy nutrition. The nurse recognizes that the client understands the teaching when the client makes which of the following statements?A.
    "I need to stop eating red meat."
    B."I will increase the servings of fruit juice to four a day."
    C."I will make sure that I eat a balanced diet and exercise regularly."
    D."I will not eat so many dark green vegetables and eat more yellow vegetables."
    C."I will make sure that I eat a balanced diet and exercise regularly."
  60. The nurse teaches a client who has had surgery to increase intake of which nutrient to help with tissue repair?
    A. Carbohydrate
    B. Vitamins
    C. Fat
    D. Protein
    D. Protein
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  61. The home health nurse is seeing the following clients. Which client is at greatest risk for experiencing inadequate nutrition?
    A. A 55-year-old obese man recently diagnosed with diabetes mellitus
    B. A recently widowed 76-year-old woman recovering from a mild stroke
    C. A 22-year-old mother with a 3-year-old toddler who underwent tonsillectomy
    D. A 46-year-old man recovering at home following coronary artery bypass surgery
    B. A recently widowed 76-year-old woman recovering from a mild stroke
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  62. The nurse is caring for a client experiencing dysphagia. Which interventions will help decrease the risk of aspiration during feeding? (Select all that apply.)
    A. Have the client sit upright in a chair.
    B. Give liquids at the end of the meal.
    C. Place food in the strong side of the mouth.
    D. Provide thin foods to make it easier to swallow.
    E. Feed the client slowly, allowing time for the client to chew and swallow.
    F. Encourage the client to lie down to rest for 30 minutes after eating.
    • A. Have the client sit upright in a chair.
    • C. Place food in the strong side of the mouth
    • E. Feed the client slowly, allowing time for the client to chew and swallow.
  63. Which of the following statements about water-soluble vitamins is true? (Select all that apply.)
    A. They cannot be stored.
    B. They often cause toxicity.
    C. They must be consumed daily.
    D. Supplements must be taken to reach the recommended daily allowance of these vitamins.
    • A. They cannot be stored.
    • C. They must be consumed daily.
  64. Woman is considering becoming pregnant. The nurse practitioner recommends that the client begin to consume which of the following before attempting pregnancy to prevent neural tube defects in the fetus?
    A. Calcium
    B. Folic acid
    C. Vitamin C
    D. Riboflavin
    B. Folic acid
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  65. A client has gained 2 lb of weight in the past day. The nurse calculates this weight gain to be __________ ml of fluid.
    1000
  66. Which of the following nutrients is the body's preferred energy source?
    A. Fat
    B. Protein
    C. Carbohydrates
    D. Vitamins
    C. Carbohydrates
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  67. Based on knowledge of the benefits of choosing carbohydrates with low glycemic index, the nurse recommends which of the following?
    A. Muffin
    B. Olive oil
    C. Orange juice
    D. Lentils
    D. Lentils
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  68. A school nurse is conducting nutrition teaching with an adolescent. Which of the following considerations guides the nurse's teaching?
    A. The chronological age of the adolescent
    B. The adolescent's increased daily need for iron
    C. The need to increase consumption of calories from all nutrient group
    D. The need to eliminate snacking
    B. The adolescent's increased daily need for iron
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  69. The nurse examines the laboratory data and observes a client with many chronic health conditions currently hospitalized because of diarrhea. Which finding is consistent with poor nutrition?
    A. Pale eye membranes
    B. Presence of surface papillae on tongue
    C. Nitrogen balance of 3g  
    D. Reddish pink oral membranes
    A. Pale eye membranes
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  70. The nurse is concerned about fluid intake of an older adult who is reluctant to drink more water. Which intervention could the nurse try?
    A. Offer all vegetables as raw because of the higher fluid content
    B. Offer two 250 ml glasses of fluid from beverage and food sources
    C. Offer extra intake in the morning and early afternoon
    D. Offer the older adult extra coffee with each meal
    C. Offer extra intake in the morning and early afternoon
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  71. A woman with which following waist circumference is at significant risk for heart disease and stroke?
    A. 30 cm
    B. 60 cm
    C. 90 cm
    D. 45 cm
    C. 90 cm
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  72. When evaluating the history of an overweight or obese child, the nurse is sure to assess which of the following? (Select all that apply)
    A. Consumption of fruits and vegetables
    B. Use of vitamin supplementation
    C. Television watching patterns
    D. Physical activity
    • A. Consumption of fruits and vegetables
    • C. Television watching patterns
    • D. Physical activity

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