Bacterial Taxonomy

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Bacterial Taxonomy
2013-10-07 20:39:56
Prokaryotic concepts

prokaryotic concepts 2 and bacterial taxonomy
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  1. What are the two ways to measure cell growth?
    viability and cell stains.
  2. What do viability counts include?
    • Plating: spread plate method, pour plate method.
    • Colony counter
    • Cell counts
    • Petroff-Hausser counter
  3. What do cell stains include?
    • Acridine orange
    • Dapi stain
    • Trypan-blue exclusion
  4. What does metabolism use?
  5. What are Aerobes?
    Organisms that grow in the presence of oxygen.
  6. What are the two types of aerobes?
    Obligate aerobes and microaerophile.
  7. What are Obligate aerobes?
    Requires atmospheric oxygen (20 percent) for growth and metabolism.
  8. What is a microaerophile?
    is an aerobe that requires oxygen for metabolism but at very low concentrations.
  9. What are anaerobes?
    Anaerobes are organisms that grow in the absence of oxygen.
  10. What is a facultative anaerobe?
    A facultative anaerobe is an anaerobe that is able to use both pathways and therefore does not require oxygen but grows better in its presence.
  11. What is an Aerotolerant?
    Is an anerobe that does not require oxygen but can withstand the presence of oxygen. It grows just as well is and out of the presence of o2.
  12. What enzymes are used to destroy toxic oxygen forms in an Obligate anaerobe?
    Catalase and superoxide dismutase
  13. What are the important enzymes used to destroy toxic forms of oxygen in a faclutative anaerobe?
    Catalase and superoixide dismutase
  14. What are the important enzymes that destroy toxic oxygen forms in an Obligate anaerobe?
    Neither catalase nor superoxide dismutase in most.
  15. What are the important enzymes that are sued to destroy toxic oxygen forms in a microphile aerobe?
    small amounts of catalase and super dismutase.
  16. What are the important enzymes that are required to destroy toxic oxygen forms in an Aerotolerant anaerobe?
    Superoxide dismutase
  17. What is iron used for when microorganisms uptake it?
    Iron is used in cytochromes and to stabilize many enzymes.
  18. What are cytochromes?
    Cytochromes are proteins that are involved in the electron transport and in redox reactions.
  19. Under toxic conditions, is iron uptake easy or difficult for cells?
  20. Why is iron uptake so difficult under toxic conditions?
    Iron uptake is difficult under toxic conditions due to ferric iron being insoluble. (Fe3+)
  21. Under Anoxic conditions, is it Fe3+ or Fe2+ that is soluble?
  22. What are siderphores?
    Siderphores are organic molecules that bind to Fe3+  which make it possible for the cell to take up iron.
  23. What are the two types of siderphores?
    Hydroxamic acid and enterobactins.
  24. What is a Hydroxamic acid?
    Is a type of a siderphore that strongly chelates iron.
  25. What are enterobactins?
    Enterobactins are a type of siderphores that are produced by enteric bacteria like E. coli and Salmonella which are derived from catechol.
  26. Are siderphores used by many bacteria and fungi, if so how?
    Yes, they are often secreted when iron is scarce in the environment and is important is for establishing an infection in animal's cells.
  27. What are the two types of photosystems?
    Photosystem 1 and photosystem 2
  28. How are the two photosystems different?
    Their wavelengths of which light is abosrbed are different.
  29. What happens at the cyclic photophosphorylation?
    The electrons return to the chorophyll after passing through the electron transport chain.
  30. How does Non-cyclic photophosphorylation work?
    the electrons are used to reduce Nadp and electrons are returned to chlorophyll from h20 and h2s.
  31. What is photosynthesis based on?
    Oxygen requirements.
  32. What are the two types of photosynthesis that are based on oxygen requirements?
    Oxygenic and Anoxygenic photosynthesis
  33. What pigment is included in oxygenic photosynthesis?
  34. What does water do in regards to oxygenic photosynthesis?
    Water is an electron donor.
  35. What is produced from oxygenic photosynthesis?
  36. Is oxygenic photosynthesis an aerobic or anaerobic process?
    It is frequently an aerobic process.
  37. What is the pigment used in an Anoxygenic photosynthesis?
  38. Is water the electron donor in anoxygenic photosynthesis?
    No, water is not the electron donor in anoxygenic photosynthesis.
  39. Is oxygen produced in an anoxygenic photosynthesis process?
    No, oxygen is not produced.
  40. Is anaoxygenic photosynthesis an aerobic or an anaerobic process?
    Anaerobic process.
  41. What does Chlorophyll abosorb?
    light red and blue light
  42. What are the two absorption spectra in chrlorophyll that contains a porphyrin ring with mg in the middle?
    Chlorophyl a absorbs 680 nm light and chlorophyll b absorbs light at 660 nm.
  43. Where are chlorophylls located?
    in membrane systems
  44. In Eukaryotes, where does oxygenic photosynthesis take place?
    In the thylakoid membrane within the chloroplast.
  45. Where does oxygenic photosynthesis occur in prokaryotes?
    In the thylakoid membrane within the cell and it can be complex and multi-layered as well as simple, running parallel (and internal) to the cell wall, around the periphery of the cytoplasm.
  46. What uses the bacteriochlorophyll in anoxygenic photosynthesis?
    Purple and green bacteria.
  47. What are the bacteria that are located in membrane systems?
    • Purple bacteria
    • Heliobacteria
    • Green bacteria
  48. What are purple bacteria?
    Purple bacteria have invagination of the cytoplasmic membrane.
  49. What do Heliobacteria have that is unique, part of the bacteriochlorophyll in anoxygenic bacteria?
    a cytoplasmic membrane.
  50. What do Green bacteria have in regards to their location in membrane systems in anoxygenic photosynthesis?
    Both a cytoplasmic membrane and membrane-enclosed structures called chlorosomes
  51. What are the six Bacteriophyll bacteria?
    a, b, c, d, e, g
  52. What are Carotenoids?
    Carotenoids are accessory pigments that are associated with the chlorophyll or bacteriochlorophyll.
  53. Are Carotenoids Hydrophobic or hydrophilic?
  54. Because Carotenoids are hydrophobic, where are they located in regards to the membrane?
    The hydrophobic pigments are firmly embedded in the membrane.
  55. With carotenoids in mind, what are the colors of oxygenic photosynthesis?
    Yellow, green, red, and brown.
  56. In regards to carotenoids, what are the colors of the anoxygenic photosynthesis
    Yellow, green, brown, pink, and purple.
  57. Do carotenoids function in Atp synthesis?
    no, carotenoids do not function in atp synthesis
  58. What do Carotenoids do?
    They transfer light to the reaction center in where a complex of pigments are used to harvest light and generate atp.
  59. What do the reaction centers do?
    A complex of pigments used to harvest light to generate atp and act as photoprotective agents from toxic oxygen species (singlet oxygen).
  60. What are the three accessory pigments with regards to Phycobilins/Phycobiliproteins?
    Phycoerythrin, phycocyanin, and allophycocyanin.
  61. Where are phycobilins/phycobiliproteins present?
    In cyanobacteria and red algal chloroplast.
  62. What is the red pigment in phycobilins/phycobiliproteins?
  63. What is the blue pigment in regards to phycobilins/phycobiliproteins?
  64. Besides the the phycoerythrin in phcobilins/phycobiliproteins, what is the red pigment?
  65. What are the phycobilins/phycobiliproteins called when they are in aggregates?
  66. What are phycobilisomes attached to in regards to the accessory pigments of phycobilins/phycobiliproteins?
    photosynthetic membranes.
  67. What is the halophile conept?
    It is when microbes require high level of sodium chloride to grow; usually above 0.2M.
  68. What is the optimum growth temperature for Psychrophile?
    0-15 derees celcius.
  69. What are the growth temperatures for Psychrotroph?
    • minimum 0-7
    • optimum 20-30
    • maximum 35 degrees
  70. What is the temperature for optimum growth for mesophile?
    20-45 degrees celcius.
  71. What is the optimum growth temperature of a Thermophile?
  72. What is the optimum growth temperature range for a Hyperthermophile (extreme thermophile)?
    between 80-113 degrees celcius
  73. What is the growth pressure for a Batolerant?
    Able to grow at different ranges of hydrostatic pressures.
  74. What is the pressure growth for a Barophile?
    Grows more rapidly at high hdrostatic pressures.