chapter 6 cognition

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brianklein
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chapter 6 cognition
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2013-10-07 22:23:35
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cognition
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  1. the effect of a stimulus on the sensory organs
    sensation
  2. the elaboration and interpretation of a sensory stimulus based on, for example, knowledge of how objects are structured
    perception
  3. type of photoreceptor specialized for low levels of light sensitivity
    rods
  4. internal surface of the eyes containing photoreceptors that convert light to neural signals
    retina
  5. type of photoreceptor specialized for high levels of light intensity, such as those found during the day and specialized for the detection of different wavelengths
    cone cells
  6. information from the retina is transmitted to the brain via the
    optic nerves
  7. the highest concentration of cones is at a point called the ____. the level of perceived detail is greatest at this point.
    fovea
  8. the first stage of visual processing in the cortex; the region retains the spatial relationships found on the retina and combines simple visual features onto more complex ones
    primary visual cortex ( V1)
  9. the region of space that elicits a response from a given neuron
    receptive field
  10. neurons need to be able to detect
    • -how light or dark something is
    • -the color of an object
    • -edges
  11. neurons in the ____ _____ _____ (__) transform the information in the lateral geniculate nucleus into a basic code that enables all of these types of visual information to be extracted by later stages of processing
    primary visual cortex (v1)
  12. in vision, cells that respond to light in a particular orientation
    simple cells
  13. many orientation-selective cells were found (by hubel and wiesel) to be ______ sensitive too
    wavelength
  14. in vision, cells that respond to light in a particular orientation but do not respond to single points of light. simple cells themselves might be combined into what they term
    complex cells
  15. in vision, cells that respond to particular orientations and particular lengths. also orientation sensitive
    hypercomplex cells
  16. to date, around ___ different pathways from the eye to the brain have been discovered, of which the pathway via the lgn to V1 is most well understood
    ten
  17. for automatic body movements, other routes besides V1 can provide
    an early warning signal to potentially threatening stimuli
  18. the primary visual cortex (V1) contains cells that enable a basic detection of visual features that are likely to be important for
    segregating the scene into different objects
  19. cortical blindness restricted to one half of the visual field (associated with damage to the primary visual cortex in one hemisphere)
    hemianopia
  20. cortical blindess restricted to a quarter of the visual field
    quadrantanopia
  21. a small region of cortical blindness
    scotoma
  22. a symptom in which the patient reports not being able to consciously see stimuli in a particular region but can nevertheless perform visual discrimination accurately
    blindsight
  23. it reflects the operation of other visual routes from the eye to the brain, rather than residual ability of V1
    most satisfactory explanation of blindsight
  24. a failure to perceive color (the world is in grayscale), not to be confused with color blindness
    achromatopsia
  25. failure to perceive visual motion
    akinetopsia
  26. a region of extrastriate cortex associated with color perception
    V4
  27. a region of extrastriate cortex associated with motion perception
    V5
  28. the color of a surface is perceived as constant even when illuminated in different lighting conditions
    color constancy
  29. types of movement do not rely on the V5. patients with damage to the V5 are able to discriminate
    biological from non biological motion
  30. the ability to detect whether a stimulus is animate or not from movement cues alone
    biological motion
  31. a memory representation of the three dimensional structure of objects
    structural descriptions
  32. a failure to understand the meaning of objects due to a deficit at the level of object perception
    apperceptive agnosia
  33. a failure to understand the meaning of objects due to a deficit at the level of semantic memory
    associative agnosia
  34. the process of segmenting a visual display into objects versus background surfaces
    figure-ground segregation
  35. a failure to integrate parts into wholes in visual perception
    integrative agnosia
  36. an understanding that objects remain the same, irrespective of differences in viewing condition
    object constancy
  37. inability to extract the orientation of an object despite adequate object recognition. these patients appear to achieve object constancy by using a view independent route that does not extract the orientation
    object orientation agnosia
  38. neurons tend to code for ___ ___ ___ but are less concerned with the location of the object, an ideal condition for computing object constancy
    specific visual information
  39. there is convincing evidence that there are at least two routes to  _____ _____. one that is sensitive to viewpoint and one that is not
    object constancy
  40. the notion that the brain represents different categories in different ways and/or different regions
    category specificity
  41. responds to more than objects
    parahippocampal place area
  42. responds to the human body more than to faces, scenes or objects
    extrastriate body area
  43. stored knowledge of the three dimensional structure of familiar faces
    face recognition units
  44. an abstract description of people that links together perceptual knowledge with semantic knowledge
    person identity nodes
  45. impairments of face processing that do not reflect difficulties in early visual analysis (the inability to recognize previously familiar faces)
    prosopagnosia
  46. ALL object recognition lies on a continuum between recognition by parts and recognition by wholes
    Farahs thesis

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