Microbiology Test #2

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brenpmitchell
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239404
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Microbiology Test #2
Updated:
2013-10-07 22:23:25
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bacteria infections
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Ch. 10-13
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  1. Embryonated Eggs
    convenient and inexpensive method for cultivating viruses
  2. Growing animal viruses: 3 methods
    in living animals, in embryonated eggs, in cell cultures
  3. Classifications of viruses
    • Based on:
    • Type of nuclein acid
    • Size and shape
    • Prescence or absence of outer envelope
  4. Envelop
    Not found in all viruses,usually a piece of the host plasma membrane
  5. Core
    • Consists of nucleic acid
    • either DNA or RNA but not both
  6. Capsid
    • outer most part of a virus
    • composed of; proteins
  7. Basic parts of a virus
    • Capsid
    • Core
    • Envelop
  8. Viro
    latin for poison
  9. Virus
    • obligate intracellular parasite
    • consist of non-living particles
    • they are all infectious
  10. Vegetative Hyphae
    Hyphae that grows into the media to obtain nutrients
  11. Hyphae
    • body of mold consists of long filaments of cells
    • joined together
  12. Mycology
    study of fungi
  13. Gram Positive Bacteria
    • 2 Groups:
    • High G&C ratio = Actinobacter
    • Low G&C ratio = Firmicules
  14. Aerial Hyphae
    • Portion extending above surface of media, where spores are located
    • AKA: Reproductive Hyphae
  15. Mycelium
    A colony or body of mold
  16. Growth of Hyphae
    Hyphae grow by elongating at the tips, colony grows out from center in circular pattern
  17. Epsilonproteobacteria
    • Human Pathogens
    • Compylobacter - dairy/poultry
    • Helicobacter - ulcer/stomach cancer
  18. Deltaproteobacteria
    No human pathogens
  19. Gammaproteobacteria
    • Largest group of organisms
    • Opportunistic pathogens
  20. Betaproteobacteria
    • Neisseria (meningitis and gonnorhea)
    • Bordatella (pertusis)
  21. Alphaproteobacteria
    • Obligate intracellular parasites
    • Capable of growth at very low levels of nutrients
  22. 5 classes of Proteobacteria
    • Alpha
    • Beta
    • Gamma
    • Delta
    • Epsilon
  23. Differential Staining
    • Useful in classification for cell wall type
    • Primary characteristics used in identifying microorganisms
  24. Morphology
    • Shape
    • Presence of flagella
    • Presence of a capsule/slime layer
    • Arrangement of the organisms
  25. Toxonomic Hierarchy
    • Domain - least specific
    • Species - most specific
  26. Domain Archeae
    • Often live in extreme environments
    • Extreme halophiles
    • Extreme thermophiles, methanogens
  27. Dimorphic Fungi
    • Fungi that appear in two different forms of growth
    • As mold or yeast
    • Primarily the fungi that cause the systemic mycosis
  28. Thermal Dimorphism
    • At room temp = mold
    • At body temp = yeast
  29. Molds lifecycle
    Molds can reproduce asexually or sexually
  30. Asexual reproduction  (molds)
    • Hyphae fragmentation
    • Spores formed on the hyphae of one organism
  31. Sexual reproduction (molds)
    Spores, result from the fusion of two strains of the same species
  32. Mycosis
    Fungal infection
  33. Mycoses are classified by:
    • Degree of tissue involvement
    • Mode of entry into the host
  34. Fungal infections
    • Most fungal infections are chronic
    • Fungi grow slowly in the body
  35. Domain Bacteria
    • Pathogens
    • non-pathogens
    • other bacteria
  36. Domain Eukarya
    • Animals
    • Plants
    • Fungi
    • Protozoa
  37. 3 Domains
    • Eukarya
    • Bacteria
    • Archeae
  38. Phylogeny
    Study of the evolutionary history of organisms
  39. Taxonomy
    Science of classification of organisms
  40. Lichens
    • A combination of a green algae and a fungus
    • Inhabit areas in which neither fungi nor algae could survive alone
  41. Algae
    Mostly aquatic but can be found in soil or on trees where sufficient moisture is available
  42. Thallus
    • The body of a multi-cellular algae
    • Seaweeds are largely multi-cellular algae
  43. Brown Algae
    • AKA Kelp
    • Found in coastal waters
    • Algin (a food thickener) is extracted from their cell walls
  44. Red Algae
    • Can live at greater ocean depths than other algae
    • Agar (a thickener used in microbiological media) is extracted from it.
  45. Green Algae
    Believed to have given rise to terrestrial plants
  46. Dinoflagellates
    Planktin
  47. Protozoa
    • Unicellular
    • Eukaryotic
    • Chemoheterotrophic organisms
    • 20000 species, but few human pathogens
    • Inhabit soil and water, require moisture for survival
  48. Trophozoite
    Feeding and growth stage of protozoa
  49. Cyst
    The environmentally resistant stage (not all protozoa have a cyst stage)
  50. Malaria
    • One of the most common diseases worldwide
    • transmitted by the bite of infected mosquitoes
    • complex life-cycle
    • diagnosis by observing the parasite inside the hosts red blood cells
  51. Vectors
    Arthropods that carry pathogenic microorganisms
  52. Arthropods may be
    • Mechanical vectors (carry the microbes on their feet or bodies, such as the house fly)
    • Biological vectors (multiply/reproduce in the vector and then accumulate in the vectors feces or saliva, such as ticks)
  53. Arachnida
    • Eight legs
    • Spidies, Mities and tickies
  54. Crustacea
    • Four antenna
    • Crabs and crayfish
  55. Insecta
    • Six legs
    • Bees, flies, lice
  56. Control of Arthropod-borne disease
    • Done by controlling the arthropod or eliminating the arthropod
    • Avoiding exposure
    • Wearing long sleeves
    • Using deet! products

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