Psychology Test #2

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Author:
nataliepop11
ID:
239408
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Psychology Test #2
Updated:
2013-10-07 22:19:55
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psychology
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Description:
states of consciousness, memory, learning, cognition & mental ability
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  1. Stages of sleep
    • 1 - alpha waves
    • 2 - theta 
    • 3 - delta (transition)
    • 4 - delta 
    • REM - alpha
  2. How long does it take to get through one full sleep cycle? (on average)
    • 90 min:
    • 1-2-3-4 = 60min
    • -3-2-REM = 30 min
  3. Theories that explain why we dream (3)
    • 1. Freud - dream analysis (royal road to unconscious)
    • 2. Learning & memory 
    • 3. Hall - go through every day events & move on
  4. Manifest content
    the "story line" of a dream
  5. Latent content
    the true unconscious meaning behind a dream
  6. Insomnia
    • inability to fall or stay asleep 
    • causes: stress, bad sleeping habits
  7. Narcolepsy
    • fall asleep without warning
    • causes: genetic defect in CNS
  8. Sleep apnea
    • breathing difficulties during sleep
    • - affect 12 million people
  9. Nightmares
    • occur during REM sleep & can be remembered in the morning
    • causes: stress
  10. Night terrors
    • occur during NREM sleep & cannot be recalled in the morning
    • causes: unknown, stress
  11. Sleepwalking/sleeptalking
    • occurs in stage 4, common in youth
    • causes: stress
  12. Mesmer's method of treatment
    put patients in hot tub & wave magnetic wand & make suggestions
  13. What was Mesmer credited for discovering?
    hypnosis
  14. Drug addiction
    the ongoing abuse of drugs that leads to compulsive use of the drug
  15. Drug tolerance
    body adapts to the drug, so the abuser has to keep increasing the dose to get same effect
  16. Drug withdrawl
    physical & psychological effects that occur when one quits abusing a drug (3/4 people relapse)
  17. Stimulants
    • increase activity in nervous system
    • -amphetamines, caffeine, cocaine, nicotine
  18. Amphetamines
    destroys dopamine & seratonin = suicide, psychosis
  19. Caffeine
    headaches
  20. Cocaine
    heart attacks
  21. Nicotine
    lung cancer, heart problems, emphysema
  22. Depressants
    slows down behavior & cognitive processes
  23. Alcohol
    cancer, liver cirrhosis, Korsakoff's, automobile accidents, murders, suicide, domestic abuse, unplanned pregnancy (#1 drug problem)
  24. Barbiturates
    accidental suicide (mixed w/ alcohol)
  25. Inhalants
    emphysema
  26. Opiate narcotics
    • addictive pain suppressor 
    • -opium, codene, morphine, heroin
  27. Hallucinogens
    • distort visual and/or auditory perceptions
    • -marijuana, LSD
  28. Marijuana
    carcinogens, addictive, lung cancer
  29. LSD
    takes 12 hours to leave system, can be absorbed through contact w/ skin
  30. Consciousness can be altered by:
    sleep, meditation, hypnosis, psychoactive drugs
  31. Consiousness
    awareness & responsiveness to mental processes & the environment
  32. Circadian cycle
    fundamental adaptations to 24 hr solar cycle of light & dark
  33. For what clinical applications is hypnosis used?
    psychology, dentistry, medicine
  34. Meditation
    focus on thought in a way to decrease sympathetic nervous system
  35. Mantra
    sound you repeat during meditation to help not think, focus attention on irrelevant object
  36. Hypnosis
    trance-like state that involves deep relaxation
  37. Sleep deprivation
    causes 200,000 motor accidents
  38. Classical (Pavlovian) condition
    • type of learning in which a response naturally elicited by one stimulus comes to be elicited by a different, formerly neutral, stimulus 
    • - ex: dog salivating when it heard noise that food was going to be served
  39. Operant (Instrumental/Active) conditioning
    operating on environment: behavior 1st, consequence 2nd
  40. Unconditioned Stimuli
    • UCS 
    • -ex: food for dog
  41. Unconditioned response
    • UCR 
    • - salivation
  42. conditioned stimulus
    • CS
    • - bell (paired w/ food)
  43. conditioned response
    • CR
    • - salivation (brought on by bell)
  44. Stimulus generalization
    • transfer of learned response to different but similar stimuli 
    • Ex: scared of rabbits = scared of all things white
  45. Stimulus discrimination
    • learning to respond only to one stimulus & to inhibit the response to all other stimuli
    • Ex: scared of only the white rabbit
    • (operant conditioning)
  46. Effective punishment is...
    • swift
    • consistent
    • sufficient
  47. Observational learning
    • watching & listening to people in order to learn (reward not needed) 
    • Ex: bandura experiment of 1965
  48. Positive reinforcement
    strengthens likelihood of behavior by adding something rewarding to the situation
  49. Biofeedback
    use of equipment to get info about biological processes in order to control them
  50. Episodic memory
    • personal 
    • (like a diary)
  51. Semantic memory
    • what you know
    • (facts & concepts)
  52. Procedural memory
    • how to do something 
    • (habits - automatic)
  53. Emotional memory
    learned emotional responses to various stimuli
  54. 3 Stages of the Information Processing system
    • 1. sensory registers
    • 2. short term memory
    • 3. long term memory
  55. Cocktail party phenomenon
    when something important is heard, it grabs our attention
  56. Echoic memory
    mental representation of what we just heard (~4 sec)
  57. Flashbulb memory
    vivid memory of a certain event even after long time has passed
  58. Iconic memory
    mental representation of what we just saw (~1 sec)
  59. Childhood amnesia
    don't remember 1st years of like - immature brain operating on STM
  60. Proactive interference
    old info interferes w/ new
  61. Retroactive interference
    new into interferes w/ old into
  62. Memories formed where?
    • In hippocampus
    • -HM had surgery to remove it & couldn't remember anything new
  63. 3 Building blocks of thought:
    • 1. Language - system of comm. that uses sound, rules & symbols
    • 2. Images - mental representations 
    • 3. Concepts - mental categories to classify people & experiences
  64. Formula of IQ
    IQ = MA/CA x 100
  65. Mental Retardation
    • IQ of less than 70
    • ~3% of people
    • causes: PKU, fragile X, Downs, unknown
  66. Giftedness
    • IQ <130 
    • ~2% of people
    • causes: unknown
  67. What determines intelligence?
    genetics & environment
  68. role of genetics?
    gives mental capacity
  69. role of environment?
    to develop intelligence
  70. Cognition
    process we use to acquire & apply information
  71. Intelligence
    abilities involved in learning an adaptive behavior
  72. Algorithm
    problem solving step by step - guarantees solution
  73. Heuristic
    "rules of thumb" - doesn't guarantee correct solution
  74. Trial & error
    try & fail - does not guarantee solution
  75. Distinguishing features of language:
    • 1. meaningful
    • 2. displacement
    • 3. productivity
  76. Problems w/ texting & driving:
    • breaking time increase by 35%
    • steering control drops 91%

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