Topic 1 Macronutrients

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Author:
kateodaniel
ID:
239413
Filename:
Topic 1 Macronutrients
Updated:
2013-10-07 22:31:44
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nutrition topic stage
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Macronutrients
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  1. functions of fat
    • extra insluation and protection of internal organs
    • Transports fat soluble vitamins (ADEK)
    • energy stores are in lipid cells
  2. deficiencies of fat
    • starvation
    • ezcema
    • deficiency of essential amino acids
    • growth retardation
    • likely cases of starvation
  3. examples of saturated fat
    potato chips, take away foods, cheddar cheese and chocolate
  4. examples of monounsaturated fat
    avocado, olive oil and almonds
  5. examples of polyunsaturated fat
    polyunsaturated margargine, brazil nits and oily fish
  6. functions of omega 3 + example
    • increased reduced levels of anti clotting in the blood
    • protects the heart against heart attack
    • fish and fish oil supplements
  7. weight distribution define gynoid
    better for your health, shaped as a pear
  8. weight distribution define andriod
    increases cardiovascular levels but shaped like an apple
  9. functions of protein
    • structure of cell membrane
    • growth, repair and maintenance of muscle tissue
    • hair and nail growth
    • second source of energy
    • transports proteins
  10. deficiencies of protein
    • tissue wasting
    • oedema
    • changes in appearance
    • metabolic impairment
  11. define indespensable aa
    and dispensable aa
    • ind - the body cannot make
    • dis - amino acids that can be made in the body
  12. define complete amino acids and imcomplete amino acids
    • complete - made up of all essential amino acids - meat, fish, eggs
    • incomplete - lacking in essential amino acids - cereals, fruit and veg
  13. carbohydrate functions
    • main source of energy to achieve daily activities 
    • provision of dietary fibre to stimulate the digestive system
  14. deficiencies of carbohydrates
    • protein depletion as the body converts muscle tissue to provide energy for the body's daily activities
    • inability to participate in prolonged exercise as the bodys glycogen stores are inadequate.
  15. monosaccharides
    • one sugar
    • glucose, fructose and galactose
  16. disacchardies
    • double sugar
    • maltose (glucose x 2)
    • sucrose (fructose and glucose)
    • lactose (glucose and galactose)
  17. polysaccharides
    • 3 of more sugars
    • starch (potatoes), chitin, cellulose, dextrin, pectin and glycogen
  18. define indigestable carbs
    carbs that cannot be broken down in to a monosaccharide and absorbed in the gastrointestinal tract
  19. define digestable carbs
    carbs that can be digested and broken down into a monosaccharide and absorbed by the stomach
  20. dietary fibre functions
    • encourage a health saliva flow to ensure healthy gums and teeth
    • control glucose levels that are absorbed in to the blood stream
    • help prevent bowel cancer and constipation
    • help prevent and reduce high blood chloesterol levels
  21. coeliac disease
    what is it, functions
    • permanent intolerance to gluten, loss of villi resulting in a decreased absorption of nutrients that rely on their large surface area
    • reduced number of villi, coeliac suffers can experience malabsorption of proteins, vitamins and minerals. 
    • functions - diarrhoea, anaemia, mouth ulcers,
  22. lactose intolerance
    what is it, concerns and functions
    • inhability to breakdown lactose in milk products due to insufficient lactasle (enzyme required to digest lactose)
    • concerns - pain suffers experience
    • reaching RDI for calcium
    • lack of variety in the diet
    • functions - bloating and diarrhoea, calcium, phosphorus and vitamin D are essential for growth of bones and teeth
    • SOY products are now avaliable
  23. define energy dense
    are high in kilojoules (generally because fats are present) lower in fibre and high in sucrose with a few vitamins and minerals (high amount of energy)
  24. define nutrient dense
    contain many nutrients and high in fibre, vitamins and minerals
  25. 5 Australian Healthy Eating guidelines
    • 1. achieve and maintain a healthy weight, be physically active and choose amounts of nutritious foods to meet your energy needs
    • 2. energy a wide range of nutritious foods from the food groups each day
    • 3. limit the intake of food containing saturated fats, added salt, sugar and alcohol
    • 4. encourage and support breastfeeding
    • 5. care for your food, prepare and store it safely.

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