receives somatosensory, proprioceptive, visual, and auditory inputs
retrieves relevant information from parietal and frontal lobes; decides what action is desired
Premotor and supplementary motor areas:
decides how actions will be performed
Primary motor cortex:
Basal Ganglia and cerebellum:
Voluntary Behavior steps:
Awareness: Idea: Program: Execution: Feedback
UMNs reside in the _____, both the cell body and axon reside here. UMNs synapse with LMNs in the _______ and the ______
Brain stem (these are the cranial nerves, they do not need a motor component)
Spinal cord (these are the spinal nerves, and they have to have a motor component)
1/2 of the UMNs reside in the ___________. which controls ___________ muscle movement.
primary motor cortex
*Remember that the homunculus is located here, and the primary motor cortex sends signals out to specific parts of the body.
The premotor and supplementary motor areas are responsible for:
________ syndrome occurs when the supplementary motor area is damaged
planning (programming) motor movements
The pyramidal tracts carries _____ information to ____ in the brain stem and SC. Fibers that synapse with cranial nerves are the _________ tract. Fibers that synapse with the spinal nerves are the ____________ tract.
corticobulbar (head and neck)
corticospinal (lateral decussates, anterior is ipsilateral)
Extrapyramidal system controls __________ motor movement. It works with the autonomic nervous system to help _______ and _________ it also helps with ____________.
facial expressions (sad, happy, irony)
There are 4 tracts, and it is also known as the indirect activating system.
The cerebellum functions in:
control of movement
receiving info from cortex
sending info back to cortex via thalamus
fine tuning motor movement (adaption and learning)
feedback for movement (detects mismatches)
modifies behavior via the primary motor cortex
Once a movement is totally learned, the _________ is no longer activated during that movement.
The basal ganglia (extrapyramidal system):
organizes automatic action sequences (in order to perform as automatic unit)
functions in inhibition and disinhibition (filtering) which is aided by substantia nigra
parts of basal ganglia:
Caudate nucleus and putamen (collectively known as striatum)
subthalamic nucleus and substantia nigra (functionally part of BG but anatomically part of midbrain)